Rural - Urban Migration and Ways of Stopping the Migration

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Rural-urban linkage generally refers to the growing flow of public and private capital, people (migration and commuting) and goods (trade) between urban and rural areas. It is important to add to these the flow of ideas, the flow of information and diffusion of innovation. Adequate infrastructure such as transportation, communication, energy and basic services is the backbone of the urban-rural development linkage approach (Tacoli, 2004). There is a positive relationship between adequacy of transportation infrastructure, ease of mobility and access to employment and enhancement of income. Adequate investments in infrastructure, particularly transportation infrastructure, also improve rural productivity and allow access to markets, jobs and public service by both men and women. (2nd FIG Regional Conference, 2003)

Rural urban linkages have several definitions, out of a desire to express the nature as clearly and concisely as possible. Thereby more recently social scientists, economists, architects and urban planners have been compelled to work together in the rural–urban interface concept seen as the interaction between the two spheres and an explicit acceptance of spatial coexistence of both. Worries are the necessity to feed and water supply the rising numbers of people that arrive in the cities every day, and also the need to find the best solutions to integrate complementary realms in order to ameliorate policies and governance (Madaleno et al., 2004).

There are different perspectives on “urban” currently adopted in mainland Tanzania:

Politico-administrative perspective
Adopted by the Prime Minister’s Office- Regional Administration and Local Government, a human settlement perspective embraced by the Ministry of Lands and Human Settlements Development and a statistical perspective adopted by the National Bureau of Statistics, The three perspectives differ primarily in their spatial unit of analysis. It applies its own categorization of “urban” to politico-administrative entities, the Local Government Authorities; while the National Bureau of Statistics applies the concept of “urban” to Enumeration Areas (EAs), the smallest statistical unit of analysis in the population and household censuses. A common denominator of the three above-mentioned urban perceptions is that none of them explicitly accounts for population density.

The human settlements perspective
National Human Settlement Development Policy 2000 provides a classification of human settlements “based on population size, level of services, economic base and level of sustenance in annual budget” Based on the policy, the urban hierarchy in Tanzania consists of four urban strata: cities, municipalities, towns and townships (or district headquarters). While the first three urban strata based on the human settlements perspective overlap with the politico-administrative classification of urban centers, the Ministry of Land Human Settlement and Development recognizes a fourth urban stratum, the townships or headquarters of the district councils.

Rural; In general rural is a geographical area in which primary production takes place and where populations are found in varying densities. These areas characterized by activities related to primary and secondary processing, marketing and services that serve rural and urban population. Defining rural is both technically and theoretically challenging and it is unlikely that there will be a universally agreed definition any time soon. The Census Bureau uses population size and density to define what is urban and by default defines rural as that which is not urban. Counties that are not designated as metropolitan are designated as non-metropolitan counties. These are further divided into metropolitan counties, and “non-core counties” who are often used as proxies for rural. These are overlapping and often contradictory definitions, with more than half (51 percent) of all rural residents, amounting to...
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