Topics: Race and Ethnicity, Ethnic group, Racism Pages: 48 (13906 words) Published: March 9, 2013
Journal of Counseling Psychology
2013, Vol. 60, No. 1, 1–14

© 2013 American Psychological Association
0022-0167/13/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0031275

The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination–Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans Debbiesiu L. Lee and Soyeon Ahn
University of Miami
This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination– distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/ private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed. Keywords: discrimination, racism, racial identity, ethnic identity, racial socialization Supplemental materials: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031275.supp

with more information from which to better understand and address the phenomenon. One cluster of variables that have arguably gained the most
attention in the literature as a potential healthy coping response to racial discrimination for Black Americans is the extent to which Black Americans identify and affiliate with members of their own racial and/or ethnic group (Brondolo, Brady ver Halen, Pencille, Beatty, & Contrada, 2009). Brondolo and colleagues identified three related variables that may be linked to discrimination— distress, including racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization (collectively referred to as racial/ethnic identity and socialization in the current article). Whereas racial identity has been defined as identification with groups of people who have been socialized as belonging to a racial group (Helms, 1993), ethnic identity has been conceptualized as identification and association with others of the same ethnic group, that is, groups with shared cultural values and beliefs (Phinney, 1996). Differences between racial identity and ethnic identity reflect the distinctions between race (a socially constructed characterization of a group of people based on shared phenotypic characteristics, such as skin color and facial features) and ethnicity (a characterization of a group of people based on shared ancestory, history, and culture). Racial socialization refers to the process in which individuals are taught certain cultural values and beliefs that pertain to their racial group membership (Berkel et al., 2009). Although there has been much debate in the literature regarding how race and ethnicity (and therefore racial identity and ethnic identity) may overlap as well as differ from one another (Cokley, 2007; Helms, 2007; Trimble, 2007), Brondolo and colleagues argued that each of these con-

Research has well documented that racial discrimination is a common experience for Black Americans1 (Kessler, Mickelson, & Williams, 1999; Sellers & Shelton, 2003) and that it leads to poor mental health outcomes (Clark, Anderson, Clark, & Williams,

1999; Sellers & Shelton, 2003). Racial discrimination has been linked with greater depression (Ashburn-Nardo, Monteith, Arthur, & Bain, 2007; Jones, 2005; Jones, Cross, & DeFour, 2007; RivasDrake, Hughes, & Way, 2008), internalizing problems (DuBois, Burk-Braxton, Swenson, Tevendale, & Hardesty, 2002), psychological distress (Neblett et al., 2008), and reductions in well-being (Sellers, Copeland-Linder, Martin, & Lewis, 2006) for Black

Americans. In a...
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