TITLE OF THE RESEARCH STUDY -RURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION THROUGH PROMOTION OF AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES
Agriculture, cum industrial cum scientific development
Today the scientific community transcends national borders and social customs. It is truly international in outlook, exchange of knowledge, participation of members. A scientist draws inspiration in being recognized by the higher echelons of the international community. To this extent the scientist has become insulated from the social atmosphere of the country in which he lives. This is especially true in India where science was never integrated with its social base. The problem facing us is to propose ways and means to accomplish this social integration of scientific knowledge and the community of scientists in India. The development of science in a society occurs under certain social conditions and progresses through certain stages of development. Neither these conditions nor stages can be completely eliminated though they may vary in their make-up and duration. But it is possible to foster the conditions which will accelerate a natural progressive development. For science to be integrated with life, it means that scientific knowledge and technology must be applied in the context of daily life which in India centers around agriculture and to a lesser extent industry and commerce. In fact the tasks of promoting the agricultural and industrial development of the nation and the application of science to social life are essentially one. The proper atmosphere must be created for a natural development of science in conjunction with agriculture and industry. The linking of these three is the key to national development. Industrial development in India:
Like science, the development of industry in India did not arise from the prevailing natural conditions in the country. Such a natural development presupposes (1) a national need in that direction; (2) capital; (3) enterprise; (4) scientific urge to acquire technology developed elsewhere; and (5) a natural setting for this effort in the social structure. What just now obtains is that the national leadership feels the urge for industrial development, dissemination of scientific knowledge at the grass roots level and a host of other things. There is not sufficient capital generated for large investment and there is no chain of natural growth in industrial development. All efforts taken at central, state and private levels are by fits and starts. As for the young men who should operate the plants and spear-head research, they are at best job oriented careerists in a great measure. Managerial cadres of good caliber are lacking. Between the scientist and the manager, the scientist is more mental and the manager relates more to the physical realities of the factory. The former tends to be lab-oriented rather than work spot-oriented. For the most part, large, medium and small scale industry here are located and operated without relation to the environment around. When a huge fertilizer plant was to be located at Cudda1ore, a top ranking government official was asked why this site was chosen. He said the principle is that one place is as good as another. The proper understanding of the relationship between industries is also lacking. When a large manufacturer of buses was asked to consider expansion of his unit for export, they expressed their willingness but said it was not possible because of the insufficient allocation of power and steel to the auxiliary industries on which they depend for vital components. In order for industrial development to move ahead swiftly and smoothly without frequent breakdowns and major gaps in the network of production, the growth must issue from a point in the society where the proper conditions are naturally met. That point will be found where science, industry, commerce and...