Role of Youth in Environment Protection

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CHAPTER 20 - WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT
I.
II.
III.
IV.

Introduction
Progress, 1996-2000
Prospects, 2001-2005
Conclusion
LIST OF TABLES

Table 20-1
Table 20-2
Table 20-3
Table 20-4

Employment Distribution By Gender Within Sectors, 1995 And 2000 Employment Distribution By Sector And Gender,1995 And 2000
Employment Distribution By Occupation And Gender, 1995 And 2000 R&D Personnel By Gender And Qualification, 1998

Chapter
Chapter

20

Women
and
Development

Malaysia Plan Ma
laysia Plan Malay
sia Plan Malaysia
Plan Malaysia Pl
an Malaysia Plan
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laysia Plan Malay
sia Plan Malaysia
Plan Malaysia Pl

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an Malaysia Plan
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laysia Plan Malay

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20
I.

WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION

20.01 Women constitute an important pool of resource that can be mobilized to achieve the national development agenda. Through the continuous efforts of the Government in providing an enabling environment during the Seventh Plan period, women continued to participate in and contribute towards the social and economic development of the country.

20.02 During the Eighth Plan period, efforts will continue to be undertaken to enhance the role, position and status of women to ensure their participation as equal partners in national development. Women will be provided with the skills and knowledge to cope with the challenges of globalization and fulfil the needs of the knowledge-based economy.

II. PROGRESS, 1996-2000
20.03 During the Seventh Plan period, women continued to make significant contributions in various fields of national development through greater participation in the economy. This was made possible through the further operationalization of the National Policy for Women and its Plan of Action for the Advancement of Women, which included the implementation of gender-sensitive and awareness training programmes. In addition, the removal of legal and institutional constraints that inhibited the participation of women in the development process further facilitated the involvement of women.

Population, Labour Force and Employment
20.04 Based on the 2000 Population Census, about 48.9 per cent or 11.4 million of the total population were women. The age-structure of the female

Chapter 20

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laysia Plan Malay

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sia Plan Malaysia
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an Malaysia Plan
Malaysia Plan Ma

population was similar to that of the male, with 52.4 per cent of the female population in the age-group 24 years and below. The Census also revealed that due to the improved female life expectancy, the proportion of the female population in the 65 to 74 years age-group increased from 3.0 per cent in 1991 to 4.3 per cent in 2000.

20.05 Although 48 per cent of women were in the working age population of 15-64 years, they only accounted for a third of the labour force. Female labour force participation registered an increase, from 43.5 per cent in 1995 to 45.8 per cent in 1997, but declined to 44 per cent in 1998 due to the economic downturn. With the economic recovery, this rate subsequently increased to 44.5 per cent in 2000.

20.06 Female employment in the mining and quarrying sector experienced the largest decline of 4.9 per cent, between 1995 and 2000, followed by the agriculture, forestry, livestock and fishing sector, which recorded a decline of 1.8 per cent during the same period, as shown in Table 20-1. Various efforts were undertaken to assist these women to re-enter the job market, including the implementation of training programmes to encourage them to venture into small businesses as well as retraining, and the identification and placement of these women in alternative jobs.

20.07 Overall, the manufacturing sector absorbed the largest share of employed women accounting for 27.3 per cent in 2000, consistent with the expanding opportunities in the sector. Another sector that recorded high female employment is the wholesale and retail...
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