Rights of Nature Ecuador and Bolivia

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RIGHTS OF NATURE
ECUADOR&
BOLIVIA
Cynthia Navarrete

• Ecuador: President
Rafael Correa
• Bolivia: President Evo
Morales
• Ecuador and Bolivia are
increasingly admired on
the international scene
for their opposition to
U.S. interference in the
democratic processes of
the 21st-century
socialism.
• This Social Revolution
was initiated by
Venezuela since 1999
(Hugo Chavez)

Terms:
• Pachamama = Mother Earth
(Indigenous language – Quechua)
• El buen vivir or “Good Living” (Sumac
Kawsay) is defined by the Ecuadorian
government as, “living at its fullest in
harmony with oneself, with the
community and with nature, by
covering needs, achieving a dignified
quality of life and death; loving and
being loved; the healthy flourishing of
all individuals in peace; and achieving a
perpetuation of human cultures”
(SENPLADES, 2012)

RIGHTS OF NATURE

QUESTIONS..
What do we mean when we say
that nature should have rights?

• the current system of law =
NATURE = PROPERTY
• Rights of Nature = Nature is
no merely property that can
be owned
• NATURE = ENTITIES that
have independent right to
exist and flourish
• Enforce by: People,
governments and
communites

Why do we need to adopt legal
structures recognizing Rights of
Nature?

• Species in dangerous
• Global warming is far more
accelerated
• Deforestation continues
unabated around the world
• Overfishing

ECUADOR
•New ideology

“Good living”

•September 2008, Ecuador became the first country in the world to recognize rights for nature in its constitution
•The Yasuni ITT initiative is referring to the plan to not drill oil in Yasuni National Park and the biosphere kept from being violated.
International community takes responsibility and
pay 3.5 billion – FAIL

BOLIVIA
•In April 2010, Bolivia hosted the World People’s
Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of
Mother Earth,
•At the conference, the Universal Declaration of
The Rights of Mother Earth was drafted and
approved

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MOTHER
EARTH April 22, 2010
• Article 1. Mother Earth
















(1) Mother Earth is a living being.
(2) Mother Earth is a unique, indivisible, self-regulating community of interrelated beings that sustains, contains and reproduces all beings.
(3) Each being is defined by its relationships as an integral part of Mother Earth. (4) The inherent rights of Mother Earth are inalienable in that they arise from the same source as existence.
(5) Mother Earth and all beings are entitled to all the inherent rights recognized in this Declaration without distinction of any kind, such as may be made between organic and inorganic beings, species, origin, use to human beings, or any other status. (6) Just as human beings have human rights, all other beings also have rights which are specific to their species or kind and appropriate for their role and function within the communities within which they exist.

(7) The rights of each being are limited by the rights of other beings and any conflict between their rights must be resolved in a way that maintains the integrity, balance and health of Mother Earth.

Article 2. Inherent Rights
of Mother Earth
(1) Mother Earth and all beings of which she is composed
have the following inherent
rights:
(a) the right to life and to exist;
(b) the right to be respected;
(c) the right to continue their vital cycles and processes free from human disruptions;
(d) the right to maintain its identity and integrity as a distinct, self-regulating and interrelated being;
(e) the right to water as a source of life;
(f) the right to clean air;
(g) the right to integral health;

Article 2. Inherent Rights
of Mother Earth
(h) the right to be free from contamination, pollution
and toxic or radioactive waste;
(i) the right to not have its genetic structure modified or
disrupted in a manner that
threatens it integrity or...
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