English for Specific Purposes
ESP CHARACTERISTICS AND SUBCHARACTERISTICS
ESP currently possesses three specifics referents in the world of English language education: a. Specific subsets of the English language that are required to carry out specific task for specific purposes. b. A branch of language education that studies and teaches subsets of English to assist learners in successfully carrying out specific task for specific purposes. c. A movement that has popularized the ESP profession and it works with ESP discourse.
A. ESP characteristics
Strevens (1981:116) claims that ESP needs to be distinguished from two characteristics: 1. Absolute characteristics
ESP consist of English language teaching which is:
a. Designed to meet specific needs of the learner.
b. Related in content to particular discipline, occupation and activities. c. Centered on the language appropriate to those activities in syntax, lexis, discourse, semantics and analysis of this discourse. 2. Variable characteristics
The claims for ESP are:
a. Being focus on the learner’s needs-waste no time.
b. Is relevant to the learners.
c. Is successful in imparting learning more cost effective then general English. Robinsons (1991:1) formulates ESP in some characteristics: 1. ESP course is normally goal directed.
2. ESP course is based on a need analysis.
3. The students in an ESP course are likely to be adults rather than children. 4. ESP course may be written about as though they consist of identical student.
B. ESP Subcategories.
a. EGP: English for General Purposes.
b. ESP: English for Specific Purposes.
a. EPE: English for Preparation Employment.
b. EEP: English for Employment Purposes.
a. EVP: English for Vocational Purposes.
b. EAP: English for Academic Purposes.
a. EOP: English for Occupational Purposes.
b. EPP: English for Professional Purposes.
OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING ESP
The main objective of teaching and learning a foreign language is to provide the learners with communicate competence, linguistics competence, and cultural competence. With these competences, learners are expected to able to use the language proficiently enough in the target language. ESP emphasizes the importance of general communication for the learners that is to enable them to deal with immediate, career-specific social interactions such as: a. To understand the language at formal speed.
b. To speak the language in a manner comprehensible to native speakers. c. To get the general idea of a topic from reading newspaper. d. To write simply but authentically e.g short letter, notes etc. e. To understand basic cultural difference in terms of attitude condition of learning and discourse, and to begin practicing correct social conventions.
Barsturkmen (2006) presents two ideas about conditions needed for language learning: 1. Acculturation.
Acculturation is based on social consideration and is premised on the idea that ESP learners need to be in close social proximity or contact with their target discourse community.
A number of social and psychological factors identified by Schuman (in Barstrukmen :2006, p 86-87) that could have an impact on the level of acculturation and thus success in learning: a. Power relation between the groups.
b. Desire to assimilate.
c. Extent of share facilities.
d. Psychological (language and culture).
2. Input and interaction.
Input and interaction is based on linguistic consideration and rests on the argument that provision of sufficient linguistic input and opportunities for interaction are prerequisites for language learning. Barstrukmen (2006) believes that sufficient linguistics input and interaction are understood to be conditions favorable for language...