ORIGIN OF BANKING
Banks are among the main participants of the financial system in India. Banking offers several facilities and opportunities. Banks in India were started on the British pattern in the beginning of the 19th century. The first half of the 19th century, The East India Company established 3 banks The Bank of Bengal, The Bank of Bombay and The Bank of Madras. These three banks were known as Presidency Banks. In 1920 these three banks were amalgamated and The Imperial Bank of India was formed. In those days, all the banks were joint stock banks and a large number of them were small and weak. At the time of the 2nd world war about 1500 joint stock banks were operating in India out of which 1400 were non- scheduled banks. Bad and dishonest management managed quiet a quiet a few of them and there were a number of bank failures. Hence the government had to step in and the Banking Company’s Act (subsequently named as the Banking Regulation Act) was enacted which led to the elimination of the weak banks that were not in a position to fulfill the various requirements of the Act. In order to strengthen their weak units and review public confidence in the banking system, a new section 45 was enacted in the Banking Regulation Act in the year 1960, empowering the Government of India to compulsory amalgamate weak units with the stronger ones on the recommendation of the RBI. Today banks are broadly classified into 2 groups namely— (a) Scheduled banks.
(b) Non-Scheduled banks.
RETAIL BANKING AN INTRODUCTION
The Retail Banking environment today is changing fast. The changing customer demographics demands to create a differentiated application based on scalable technology, improved service and banking convenience. Higher penetration of technology and increase in global literacy levels has set up the expectations of the customer higher than never before. Increasing use of modern technology has further enhanced reach and accessibility. The market today gives us a challenge to provide multiple and innovative contemporary services to the customer through a consolidated window as so to ensure that the bank’s customer gets “Uniformity and Consistency” of service delivery across time and at every touch point across all channels. The pace of innovation is accelerating and security threat has become prime of all electronic transactions. High cost structure rendering mass-market servicing is prohibitively expensive. Present day tech-savvy bankers are now more looking at reduction in their operating costs by adopting scalable and secure technology thereby reducing the response time to their customers so as to improve their client base and economies of scale. The solution lies to market demands and challenges lies in innovation of new offering with minimum dependence on branches – a multi-channel bank and to eliminate the disadvantage of an inadequate branch network. Generation of leads to cross sell and creating additional revenues with utmost customer satisfaction has become focal point worldwide for the success of a Bank Retail banking is quite broad in nature it refers to the dealing of commercial banks with individual customers, both on liabilities and assets sides of the balance sheet. Fixed, current / savings accounts on the liabilities side; and mortgages, loans (e.g., personal, housing, auto, and educational) on the assets side, are the more important of the products offered by banks. Related ancillary services include credit cards, or depository services. Retail banking refers to provision of banking services to individuals and small business where the financial institutions are dealing with large number of low value transactions. This is in contrast to wholesale banking where the customers are large, often multinational companies, governments and government enterprise, and the financial institution deal in small numbers of high value transactions. The concept is not new to banks but is now viewed as...
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