Evaluation and Structure of Commercial Banks in India

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Vinod Raina, ACS, Company Secretary Anjani Technolast Limited, Noida


In the earlier societies functions of a bank were done by the corresponding institutions dealing with loans and advances. Britishers brought into India the modern concept of banking by the start of Bank of England in 1694. In 1708, the bank of England was given the monopoly for the issue of currency notes by an Act. In nineteenth century various banks started operations, which primarily were receiving money on deposits, lending money, transferring money from one place to another and bill discounting.

History of Banking in India:
Banking in India has a very old origin. It started in the Vedic period where literature shows the giving of loans to others on interest. The interest rates ranged from two to five percent per month. The payment of debt was made pious obligation on the heir of the dead person.

Modern banking in India began with the rise of power of the British. To raise the resources for the attaining the power the East India Company on 2nd June 1806 promoted the Bank of Calcutta. In the mean while two other banks Bank of Bombay and Bank of Madras were started on 15th April 1840 and 1st July, 1843 respectively. In 1862 the right to issue the notes was taken away from the presidency banks. The government also withdrew the nominee directors from these banks. The bank of Bombay collapsed in 1867 and was put under the voluntary liquidation in 1868 and was finally wound up in 1872. The bank was however able to meet the liability of public in full. A new bank called new Bank of Bombay was started in 1867.

On 27th January 1921 all the three presidency banks were merged together to form the Imperial Bank by passing the Imperial Bank of India Act, 1920. The bank did not have the right to issue the notes but had the permission to manage the clearing house and hold Government balances. In 1934, Reserve Bank of India came into being which was made the Central Bank and had power to issue the notes and was also the banker to the Government. The Imperial Bank was given right to act as the agent of the Reserve Bank of India and represent the bank where it had no braches.

In 1955 by passing the State Bank of India 1955, the Imperial Bank was taken over and assets were vested in a new bank, the State Bank of India.

Bank Nationalization:
After the independence the major historical event in banking sector was the nationalization of 14 major banks on 19th July 1969. The nationalization was deemed as a major step in achieving the socialistic pattern of society. In 1980 six more banks were nationalized taking the total nationalized banks to twenty.

Various Types of banking services:
The flow chart below shows the various types of banking services:

Land Mortgage IFCI
Rural Credit SFCs Mutual Funds
Industrial Dev. IRBI
Housing FinanceNABARD
SIDBI Private Sector

Structure of schedule commercial banks:
The composition of the board of directors of a scheduled commercial bank shall consist of whole time chairman. Section 10A of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 provides that not less than fifty-one per cent, of the total number of members of the Board of directors of a banking company shall consist of persons, who shall have special knowledge or practical experience in respect of one or more of the matters including accountancy, agriculture and rural economy, banking, co-operation, economics, finance, law, small-scale industry, or any other matter the special knowledge of, and practical experience in, which would, in the opinion of the Reserve Bank, be useful to the banking company. Out of the aforesaid number of directors, not less than two shall be persons having...
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