“Ethics In Education”
3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
“Business Ethics Governance, And Sustainable Enterprises”
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
Dr. Viral Shilu
Shree Swaminarayan Institute Of Management
Cell: +91 9824286825
ETHICS IN EDUCATION
Education has ever been considered as one of the strongest foundations for any civilized society. The success of any Nation is largely attributed the way in which education system is built up. There is growing importance the world over these days to incorporate importance of ethical standards in education. Ethical standards in education contain basic principles, procedures and behavior patterns based on commitment to core values that are deeply rooted in education. An ethical education will pave a way to uplift educational standards which in turn will instill right values among students who will certainly create landmark in their career as well as life.
ETHICS IN EDUCATION
The Concept Of Ethics
The definition of ethics is shaped by personal, societal and professional values, all of which are difficult to specify. Some stress the importance of society’s interests and others stress the interests of the individual. These conflicting viewpoints have dominated the discussion of ethics for a long time and may remain in the future as well. Thus, the term ‘ethics’ will have to be defined in this context.
The word ‘ethics’ is derived from the Greek word ‘ethos’ (character) and Latin word ‘moras’ (customs). Taken together these two words define how individuals choose to interact with one another. Thus, ethics is about choices. It signifies how people act in order to make the ‘right’ choice and produce ‘good’ behavior. It encompasses the examination of principles, values and norms, the consideration of available choices to make the right decision and the strength of character to act in accordance with the decision. Hence, ethics, as a practical discipline, demands the acquisition of moral knowledge and the skills to properly apply such knowledge to the problems of daily life.
Philosophical Theories of Ethics
Decision making based on intuition or personal feeling does not always lead to the right course of action. Therefore, ethical decision making requires a criterion to ensure good judgment. The philosophical theories of ethics provide different and distinct criteria for good, right or moral judgment.
Three prominent philosophical theories of ethics are utilitarianism, rights and justice. They are normative theories of ethics, which provide a principle or standard on how a person ought to behave towards others by considering the right and wrong of an action. These normative theories are divided into two broad classifications, consequential and non-consequential. Consequential theories define ‘good’ in terms of its consequences, and a best known example is theory of utilitarianism. In contrast, non-consequential theories define ‘good’ not by its consequences but by its intrinsic value and the best known examples are the rights and justice theories. These theories are described below.
(a) The theory of utilitarianism
According to this theory, the ethical alternative is the one that maximises good consequences over bad consequences. Jeremy Bentham, who is considered as the father of utilitarian ethics, defines utilitarianism as the greatest happiness principle (the principle of utility), which measures good and bad consequences in terms of happiness and pain. He wrote as follows in his book ‘An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation’:
"Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, chain of causes and...