Research Methodology

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3.0RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1Introduction
The previous chapter focused on the literature issues with the traditional voting system that encourage developing an electronic application for this purpose. This chapter describes the various options to be employed by the researcher in answering the research questions. The basis of methods used to collect data of the system problem is presented. It includes specific methods which were used to achieve the objectives of the project and a justification of the chosen approach. A methodology is a systematic way of performing procedures aimed at achieving a particular goal.

3.2Data sources
3.2.1Secondary data sources
The researcher used secondary data, which played a major role in defining the electronic voting system. Secondary data refers to data already presented and collected by other researchers and have qualitative and quantitative nature and its utilization are visible in descriptive research (Lancaster states, 2005). This formed most of the literature review on this research project. The researcher extracted useful information from respectable scientists and other researchers outside Zimbabwe. The information was extracted from published textbooks, journals and research reports. The use of Internet was intensively used in the finding research publications and other research related materials. The researcher used such data extensively in order to come out with a reliable electronic voting system that suited the university voting processes.

Advantages
a)Secondary data helped to show what has already been done in the field and thus provide guideline of what should be done and avoiding repetitions. b)Most of the journals bridge the gap that exists between current trends and what is in the textbooks.

Disadvantages
a)Biased opinions and views expressed in the written material cannot be avoided totally b)The background information in terms of conditions under which information was collected and the limitations of that data is lacking. 3.2.2Primary data sources

Primary information is the first hand information collected from the public. The data is more current that secondary data and it deals with the situation at hand, hence considered more accurate than secondary data; however it requires more time effort and resources to be collected than secondary data. The aim of qualitative data is to provide a complete, detailed description and this process is recommended during earlier phases of the research work (Saunders et al., 2003). Fieldwork was carried out and the results analyzed, interpreted and conclusions and recommendations drawn.

3.3Instruments for data collection
The researcher used different methods to conduct his research. The methods were selected as they provide the best ways of conducting the research. These are the methods used to conduct research on participants; interviews, questionnaires and observation.

3.3.1Interviews
This method was used because it gives the opportunity to get first hand information of what we really want to do. The interview method of research is a conversation with a purpose and is non experimental in design. The interviewer in one-to-one conversation collects detailed personal information from individuals using oral questions. The interview is used to widely supplement and extent our knowledge about individuals thoughts, feelings and behaviours. Interviews can give us both quantitative and qualitative data about participants’ thoughts feelings and behaviours. This is due to standardisation and or free ranging nature of questions asked. The more structured or standardised interview questions are the more you are able to get quantitative data. Quantitative data is reliable and easy to analyse. The less structured and free ranging the interview questions are the more qualitative your data becomes. Qualitative data is difficult to analyse and is not as reliable. Students at CUT were interviewed to get their...
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