Religious Expression in Australia-1945 to the Present
Outline the changing patterns of religious adherence from 1945 to the present using census data. Changing Patterns of Religious Adherence :5 Major Trends
DECLINE OF MAJOR CHRISTIAN DENOMINATION
- 1947 81.2% Christian
- 2001 56.9% Christian
- Christians have greater proportion of over 50’s and less under 40’s than society at large - 82% of Australians 65+ identify as Christians. 60% of 18-24 year olds. - Largest group of Buddhist affiliates 35-44. Similar for Hindu and Muslim. - 18-24 most likely to state no religion with 20 %.
INCREASE IN THOSE IDENTIFYING WITH A TRADITION OTHER THAN CHRISTANITY - From 1996- 2001 Buddhism increased by 79% Hindu 42% Islam 40% and Judaism by 5% - Due to immigration Christianity still dominant in Immigrants . - From 1996- 2001 Half a Million new arrivals to Australia, 9% Buddhist, 9% Islam 5% Hindu 1% Judaism. INCREASE IN THOSE IDENTIFYING WITH ORTHODOX RELIGIOUS TRADITION - Up by 7% from 497 000 from 1996- 2001
- Due to Southern Eastern European Immigration.
EMERGENCE OF CATHOLICISM AS THE MAJOR CHRISTIAN RELIGION
- 1947 39% Anglican 21% Catholic 27% Other Christian
- 2001 21% Catholic, 21% Anglican.
Account for present religious landscape in Australia with relation to: CHRISTIANITY AS A MAJOR RELIGIOUS TRADITION
* White Australian Policy ensured that almost all immigrants were Christian * 1962 constitution passed that gave the Church of England in Australia to have no ties with Britain and is free to determine all matters of faith, worship and discipline. In 1982 changed its name to Anglican Church of Australia * Christian still make up majority of immigrants, from Britain, NZ and Europe * 1975-1984 total of 90000 refugees from Vietnam, Most Christian * Anglican Church no longer holds the greatest proportion of Christian adherents, now taken by Roman Catholic Church 25.8 % in 2006 * Catholicism was established as the major religious tradition due to European settlement 18th/19th Century. * Over 30 ethnic groups constitute the Catholic Church in Australia today. * Catholic Church holds the largest number of adherents of all denominations in the Australian Religious landscape. * Uniting Church is the third largest Christian Denomination in Australia * Australian society in 1947 was predominately Christian 87.3% * Roman Catholicism has risen in number of adherents since 1947, from 20.9% to 26.6% * Immigration has had a significant influence on catholic adherents, include catholic communities in Europe IMMIGRATION
* Post war (1950s) migrants included Italian Catholics and Orthodox Christians. * Immigration not only increased some religions but brought new ones in. * 1950’s saw the Vietnamese bring Buddhism
* Refugees from Lebanon, Turkey, Indonesia and Bosnia brought Islam. * Refugees from India, Sir Lanka and Fiji bought Hinduism * Jewish Migration after the WWII brought Judaism
* In the Major Christian Denominations have carterd for Marinate, Melkite in Catholic Community. DENOMINATIONAL SWITCHING
* Protestant/ Anglican Denomination people are very prepared to switch denominations. * Past generation people were loyal to the denomination they were born in. * Seen amongst 20-39 year olds.
* 1980 Pentecostalism was the fast growing Christian denomination in Australia due to denominational switching. * People focus on their personal needs that suit their lives rather than the needs of the community. * 2006 Census showed that Anglican dropped and Pentecostal identification increased because Anglicans choosing Pentecostal services because of their style. * People are more independent, choosing for themselves instead of following what they were raised in. * 1991 Church Life Survey showed 29% of people had switched in the last 5 years. THE RISE OF THE NEW AGE RELIGIONS.