Tourism Management 26 (2005) 539–548
Relationship between tourism and cultural heritage management: evidence from Hong Kong$
Bob McKerchera,*, Pamela S. Y. Hoa, Hilary du Crosb
b a School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong/School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
Received 24 November 2003; accepted 4 February 2004
Abstract This paper examines the nature of the relationship between tourism and cultural heritage management in the established urban destination of Hong Kong. In the past, conﬂict theory has formed the basis of most of the studies of relationships between tourism and other sectors. However, a conﬂict paradigm may not be the most appropriate framework. Instead, the authors outline a continuum reﬂecting different levels of maturity in the relationship between these two sectors. Seven different possible relationships are identiﬁed, that are inﬂuenced by ﬁve mitigating conditions. r 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Cultural tourism; Cultural heritage management; Relationships; Conﬂict
1. Introduction Tourism and cultural heritage management (CHM) often have an awkward relationship. Traditionally, CHM has been responsible for the provision and conservation of cultural heritage assets, while the broadly based tourism sector has assumed the product development and promotion role. Two opposing views of the nature of the relationship have been promulgated, that reﬂect different extremes of the conﬂict/co-operation dichotomy. On the one hand, a number of people have suggested that tourism and CHM are incompatible (Berry, 1994; Boniface, 1998; Jacobs & Gale, 1994; Jansen-Verbeke, 1998), and that because of this incompatibility, a conﬂict relationship is inevitable. The cultural heritage sector argues that cultural values are compromised for commercial... [continues]
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