Reid Based Prepaid Energy Mater

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  • Topic: Embedded system, Microcontroller, PIC microcontroller
  • Pages : 47 (9042 words )
  • Download(s) : 103
  • Published : March 22, 2013
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chapter 1

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1.1 Objectives of the Study

Prepaid energy meter are being used worldwide to improve the collection of funds for the energy used. Weather it is developed nation or developing nation all electricity boards are facing two major issues 1. Power Theft

2. Collection of funds
In the existing system the above two problems are non predictable and time consuming process respectively. To overcome these things in the proposed system Cal cards has developed and implemented as RFID based pre-paid energy meter. Cal card take information management to new heights with RFID technology. Using the state of the art technology, we can now write data into the RFID tag electronically. Using dual Authentication, Stream Encryption and other security features we restrict access to un-authorized personnel for any particular information. In this project three units are important they are RFID Card, RFID Reader and Writer. Tags are programmable and they may be read or read/write i.e. the information stored in the tag’s memory cannot be changed or can be updated as required. The reader powers the antenna to generate radio frequency waves to transmit a signal that activates the tag and allows data to come into or leave the tag’s memory. This card can be designed to hold all amount details including Name of the family head, ID number, resident address and amount has been recharged.

chapter 2

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2.1 Methodology of the study

Methodology:
This System assigns a unique card number for each house. A particular house person places the RFID card within 5cm distance from the RFID Reader. The RFID Reader reads down the time, date and for how much amount it was recharged. The success of recharge will be indicated on the LCD display with buzzer acknowledgement sound. The display also indicates the current energy utilization. The Interface software is responsible for energy utilization record processing and calculation amount for the utilized energy.

2.2 EMBEDDED SYSTEM:

Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. An embedded system is a microcontroller-based, software driven, reliable, real-time control system, autonomous, or human or network interactive, operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market.

An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing, not a software system on PC or UNIX, not a traditional business or scientific application. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. High-end embedded system - Generally 32, 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc .Lower end embedded systems - Generally 8,16 Bit Controllers used with an minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine, Microwave Ovens, where they are embedded in.

SYSTEM DESIGN CALLS:[pic]
THE EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN CYCLE:
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“V Diagram”

In this place we need to discuss the role of simulation software, real-time systems and data acquisition in dynamic test applications. Traditional testing is referred to as “static” testing where functionality of components is tested by providing known inputs and measuring outputs. Today there is more pressure to get products to market faster and reduce design cycle times. This has led to a need for “dynamic” testing where components are tested while in use with the entire system – either real or simulated. Because of cost and safety concerns, simulating the rest of the the system with real-time hardware is preferred to testing components in the actual real system.

The diagram shown on this slide is the “V Diagram” that is...
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