what he (the consumer)wants, but rather
what he or she wants which actually brings to somedegree the idea of customization or individualization of products (Albaum et al2005:401). According to Albaum et al (2005:401):“Adaptation should bemandatory or voluntary’’. He further argued that, ‘mandatory adaptationwould be required because of such things as language differences, differingelectrical systems, differing measurement systems, product specifications andgovernment requirements.Voluntary adaptation on the other hand is decided by the firm as to what tomodify and what variation should be made available for the target market”. Indeciding the form in which the product is to be marketed abroad Czinkota et al(2004:252) explained that there are three sets of factors to be considered namely(1) the market(s) that have been targeted, (2) the product and its characteristicsand (3) company characteristics, such as resources and policy”. In most casesthere is the need to consider the advantages as well as the disadvantages of both the issue of standardization or adaptation with special emphasis on thecost involved especially in adapting a product... [continues]
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