Research designs are plans and the procedures for research that span the decisions from broad assumptions to detailed methods of data collection and analysis. There are two main designs: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative and qualitative approaches should not be viewed as polar opposites or dichotomies; instead, they represent different ends on a continuum.
Definition of quantitative research:
▪ In the social sciences, quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. ▪ Quantitative method is such a method which deals with numeric data, amounts or measurable numbers. ▪ Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. Quantitative research is widely used in both the natural and social sciences including physics, biology, psychology, sociology, geology, education and others. ▪ Quantitative research is an attempt to establish general laws or principles.
Characteristics of quantitative research:
In the quantitative research:
• Reality is objective and singular, separate from the researcher. • Researcher is independent from what is being researched. • Facts are value-free and unbiased.
• Language of research is formal.
• Variables can be measured and identified.
• Events viewed from the outsider perspectives.
• Context-free generalizations leading to prediction, explanation and understanding. • The process of research is deductive.
• Cause and effect relationship.
• Accurate and reliable through validity and reliability. • Data is in the form of numbers and statistics.
• Structured research instruments.
• All respondents are asked the same questions.
❖ Survey research
❖ Experimental research...