This article appeared in Corporate page of The Edge Malaysia, Issue 814, July 12 - 18, 2010

Quantitative Analysis… for football managers

By Jasvin Josen

In the heat of the world cup it is worthy to reflect on how football has impacted the financial world and what it could mean for the future. The amount of money generated by the football industry grew exponentially in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and has been steadily growing since. Record-breaking financial deals have been negotiated between football clubs and players they sign. With the fast moving pace of the industry, clubs and players are bound to undergo some sort of financial advancement into the future. Shares in clubs are a reality now. Eventually, players will want to establish themselves as corporations and to issue shares in themselves. Sooner or later, it would make financial sense to hedge clubs or players’ performance with derivatives. Thus there is a real need to quantitatively evaluate a football player, to understand his value adding potential, and to put a price upon that capacity. Existing conditions already show a growing need to measure the value of a football player. Chelsea spent £24m for Didier Drogba in 2004. Real Madrid spent £80 million on Cristiano Ronaldo in June 2009. We can only guess what the price may be for Lionel Messi if he leaves Barcelona. Yet at times, this spending is claimed to have contributed to financial problems, especially when the players do not sustain their success bringing about their subsequent sale by the club at a loss. Moreover, instability came about in the football industry when the European Union (EU) legislation extended the right of free movement of labour enjoyed by other EU citizens to footballers. Formerly a player was a property of the club but now he is an employee like any other in the EU, working with a contract, and entitled to give due notice to leave that contract. Many see a strong link between this change in legislation and the...

...Final Assignment Take-Home Exam – Example Solutions
QUANTITATIVEANALYSIS AND BUSINESS DECISION MAKING
Question 1 – 5 Points
Leila took a standardized test and was told that her score was in the 89th percentile. Explain clearly and in only one sentence what this means. Notes:
Percentiles are a way of describing the position of a particular score within a set of scores As per the question, I was looking for one simple sentence to explain the meaning of the statement
Ideal Answer: If Leila’s score was in the 89 percentile this means that Leila scored higher than 89% of participants in the test.
th
Question 2 – 10 Points
A gas station near the Emirates Road is revaluating its gasoline-fuel reorder point. The gasoline fuel level in its main tank triggers an automatic replenishment order. The daily demand faced by the station for gasoline is normally distributed with an average of 8,000 liters and standard deviation of 2,500 liters. After the automatic order is placed, the gasoline-fuel is received at the gas station in exactly 3 days. In other words, it takes three days lead time for the gasoline to be replenished after the order has been made. At what volume should the re-order point be set to ensure that the station’s chance of being out of stock during the replenishment period is limited to a probability of 5%? Notes:
Those people who did not score full points on this question usually made it more complicated than it is. ...

...1 Spelelementen in strikte zin 11
4.1.2 Interactief 11
4.1.3 Non-lineair 12
4.1.4 Ergodisch 12
4.1.5 Virtualiteit en simulatie 13
4.1.6 Artificiële intelligentie 13
Context 14
5.1 Encoding 14
5.2 Decoding 17
Referentielijst 17
1 Inleiding
FootballManager is het leidinggevende spel in zijn categorie van voetbalsimulatiespellen en onderscheidt zich door de hoeveelheid aan ploegen en spelers en de vele mogelijkheden binnen het spel. Hier gaan we dieper in op FootballManager 2009 (FM09) al wordt er ook gerefereerd naar de gehele serie (FM). FM09 bestaat uit twee spelcomponenten. De éne component is het tekstgedeelte en bestaat uit navigatie en menu’s. De andere component is het wedstrijdgedeelte. Dit onderscheid wordt nu reeds aangegeven omdat het van belang is voor de analyse van het spel. Verder wordt er gesproken over een ‘gamer’ en een ‘speler’. ‘Gamer’ zal verwijzen naar de persoon die het spel speelt en ‘speler’ naar een voetbalspeler in FM09. Deze analyse is gebeurd op basis van het boek ‘Spelen in Cyberspace’ (De Meyer, 2007). Er wordt vooral ingegaan op narratologie en ludologie.
2 Hardware en software
2.1 Hardware
FootballManager wordt tegenwoordig uitgegeven op drie formaten. Het spel werd sinds het ontstaan al uitgegeven voor de computer. In 2006 werd FM uitgegeven op Xbox 360 om zo het eerste thuis-console spel in de...

...represents a line in the 2D Cartesian space, because:
It represents a collection of infinite 2D points that satisfy the equation, namely, that make the two sides of the equation equal.
Notice a line is uniquely specified by two distinct points. If we draw infinite lines using any two distinct points in the collection, they will all coincide with one another, thereby forming one single line.
Slope: the amount X2 increases given one unit increase of X1
Intercept: the point where the line intersects with X2 axis.
Use above for Slope – great formula
Redundant Constraints – if removed will not affect the feasible region
Feasible Region – The set of all points that satisfy all constraints of the model
HW EXAMPLE
Apply Graphical analysis on the Golden Electronics problem with the correct formulation given in the
solution of Self-quiz 2. 1. Draw all the constraints 2. Identify the feasible region.
SEE HOMEWORK 1 as more example
RANGE OF OPTIMALITY
Apply the method of line of same profit on the Golden Electronics problem to identify the optimal solution graphically.
USING SOLVER
SEE HW2 FOR ADDITIONAL INFO
TREE SPANNING
SEE M3P1 for EXAMPLE
SEE M3P2 as EXAMPLE
SEE HW3
PROBABILITY
Statistics - The study of modeling uncertainty mathematically and its applications;
The conception of uncertainty is inspired by our daily observations of natural phenomena. There seem to be two components to these uncertain...

...
Quantitative Studies on Medication Adherence
Maleah Perdue
University of South Alabama
Introduction
Medication adherence is a significant issue in the health systems of today. Low medication adherence can unnecessarily increase cost of health care and the amount of admissions. According to Conn et al., inadequate medication adherence may account for up to 10% of older adult hospital admissions and may cause up to $100 billion in annual health care cost (2009). Increased medication adherence is likely linked to improved health outcomes while poor medication adherence can lead to exacerbations of disease or even fatality.
Area of Interest
The area of interest is medication adherence in adults that are living in the community. Specifically, older adults that are on multiple medications were looked at because of the increased medication adherence difficulties. There is an increased number of barriers to medication adherence with older adults including poly-pharmacy, comorbidities, vision impairment, hearing loss, and memory deficits among others.
Impact to Practice
Medication non-adherence impacts practice on a daily basis. The studies in these articles are looking to find methods that older adults use to increase medication adherence. Many different methods have a possibility of increasing medication compliance and if these methods could increase adherence the positive effect could be huge in the medical field. There would be less patients...

...CASE ONE
Two advertising media are being considered for promotion of a product. Radio ads cost $400 each, while newspaper ads cost $600 each. The total budget is $7,200 per week. The total number of ads should be at least 15, with at least 2 of each type, and there should be no more than 19 ads in total. The company does not want the number of newspaper ads to exceed the number of radio ads by more than 25 percent. Each newspaper ad reaches 6,000 people, 50 percent of whom will respond; while each radio ad reaches 2,000 people, 20 percent of whom will respond. The company wishes to reach as many respondents as possible while meeting all the constraints stated.
1. Develop the appropriate LP model for determining the number of ads of each type that should be placed.
2. Graph the constraints and identify the feasible region (clearly indicate the feasible region)
3. Solve the LP problem using e corner point method and comment on your findings.
CASE PROBLEM 1
1)
Radio Newspaper Min/Max
Cost 400 600 7200 Max
Min 1 1 15 Min
Max 1 1 19 Max
At least
2R 1 1 Min
At least
2N 1 2 Min
N ≤ 1.25R
Objective: 20 (2000) 5 (6000)
R = # Radio ads
N = # Newspaper ads
Therefore A= .20(2000) R + .5(6000) N
Constraints
400 R + 600N ≤ 7200
R + N ≥ 15
R + N ≤ 19
R ≥ 2
N ≥ 2
R, N ≥ 0
1.25 R – N ≥ 0
2)
400R+ 600N ≤ 7200 (4R + 6N ≤ 72)
R= (0, 18) N= (12, 0)
R + N ≥ 15
R= (0, 15)...

...Abstract
In this experiment, the absorbance of KMnO4 was measured by spectrophotometric method to determine the molar concentration and the molar extinction coefficient of KMnO4. In part 1, in order to determine the maximum absorbance wavelength of KMnO4, we measured the absorbance of the sample solution which contains KMnO4 at the wavelengths between 330nm and 660nm, and plotted the λ and A points; the λmax was 530nm. In part 2, the effect of concentration on the absorbance was examined. We prepared five differently concentrated (but, same path length) solutions, and measured the absorbance of them at the λmax(530nm) discovered in part 1; According to the results, higher concentrated solution had higher absorbance value. The extinction coefficient(ε) could be calculated from the results determined in part 2 and Beer’s Law; ε = 1.7 x 103. In part 3, the absorbance of the KMnO4 solution of unknown concentration was measured, and using Beer’s law and dilution equation, the initial concentration of the unknown was determined; The concentration of the solution (unknown # : 15) was calculated to be 3.3 x 10-3M.
Introduction
Our eyes are sensitive to light which lies in a very small region of the electromagnetic spectrum labeled "visible light". This "visible light" corresponds to a wavelength range of 400 - 700 nanometers (nm) and a color range of violet through red. The human eye is not capable of "seeing" radiation with wavelengths outside the visible spectrum. The...

...BASIC QUANTITATIVEANALYSIS FOR MARKETING
BASIC TERMINOLOGY
Simple calculations often help in making quality marketing decisions.
If we are to assess the likely profit consequences of alternative actions, we must understand the cost associated with doing business as well.
We can calculate the expected revenue generated by each pricing strategy, but without cost information, it is not possible to determine the preferred price. The cost concepts we introduce are:
- Variable cost
- Fixed cost
- Total cost
We combine the cost information with price information to determine unit contribution and total contribution.
This Figure is a good enough approximation of actual cost behaviour
Total cost The total cost line (the solid line) does not go through the origin, i.e., for a zero output level, total cost is not zero.
Fixed cost We call OA the firm’s “fixed costs.” Fixed costs are those costs which do not vary with the level of output. An example of a fixed cost is the lease cost of a plant.
Variable cost The variable cost increases as output increases.
TOTAL COST = FIXED COST + TOTAL VARIABLE COST
Contribution
Unit contribution = PriceUnit (P) – Variable costUnit (VB)
Total contribution = (P – VB) * Total number of units the firm sells
Total contribution = Total revenue – Total variable cost
Price*Total number Variable cost unit*Total number
of unit sells of unit sells
The total...

...Quantitative and Qualitative analysis
Ensuring accuracy in both quantitative and qualitative methods.
Accurate data collection is essential in maintaining the integrity of research. Working accurately greatly decreases the possibility of an error occurring in an experiment, provides a greater chance of producing expected results and provides knowledge gained only from proven results.
Quantitative methods generate numerical data or data that can be transformed into useable statistics. It is used to quantify attitudes, behaviours and other defined variables and to formulate facts and uncover patterns in research (Wyse S., 2011). Quantitative research is made using scientific methods such as experimental control, collection of empirical data, analysis of data and practicals such as titrations. Qualitative methods, on the other hand, are the examination, analysis and interpretation of observations for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships in a manner that does not involve mathematical models (Wikipedia, 2015).
GCSE Science (2014) states that accuracy is the degree of closeness a measurement of a quantity is to that quantity’s actual value. With quantitative methods, accuracy defines the limits of the errors. Ideally, a piece of apparatus (e.g. a burette in a titration) is both accurate and precise, with measurements generated...

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