Topics: Abraham Maslow, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Psychology Pages: 10 (2565 words) Published: April 24, 2013
Introduction to Psychological Theories.

Portfolio Questions.


1. Briefly describe Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning (use the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR).

Pavlov found a method of learning by association with stimuli, called classical conditioning and observed dog ‘s behaviour. Pavlov’s demonstrates that dog start to salivate when the food has been offered. Then he resolved that stimuli could be conditioned to obtain conditioned responses. Further he pursued his research by associating food with a bell. As result, the dog salivates. After a given time, the bell itself caused the dog to salivate. Then Pavlov suggested that higher-order conditioning can be practicable.

Pavlov observed that the bell itself stimulates dog to salivate but when it happens in regular basis, the dog or individual can be discriminated and can experiment extinction it can lose interest attached toward food. Its CR becomes weak and ever more disappears. .Therefore, its emotional health can be affected as well as his relationship with others, often with confused behaviour.

Therefore, Pavlov deducted that food is unconditioning Stimuli (UCS) and salivation provoke unconditioning response (UCR). When he added a bell as Conditioning Stimuli (CS), finally he formulated the following theory of classical conditioning:

UCS (Food)........UCR (salivation)

UCS (food) + CS (bell).......UCR (salivation)

US (bell)........CR (salivation)

CS (bell) + CS (ball)...........CR (salivation)

2. Briefly describe what Skinner meant by operant conditioning.

Skinner showed that human and animals learn through reinforcement and the punishment.

So Skinner identified two approaches: reinforcement and punishment. In addition he demonstrated that the above approaches contain positive and negative reinforcement as well as positive and negative punishment.

Furthermore, the principle of reinforcement concerned responses from environment that follows behaviour and causes it to be repeated.

Skinner proposed that, for example: When a Parent rewards a child after obtaining good marks at school. The chid is more likely to be engaged in school activities. Reward serves for the child as reinforce for the response of obtaining a good marks. As result he will be more motivated in school activities.

The example above may reflect a positive reinforcement. The consequence involves a pleasant action (reward) that follows a behaviour and increase the possibility to happen again. While the negative reinforcement related to increase the probability of a response which a response immediately leads to termination or withholding of an aversive stimulus. Skinner defined punishment as a method which responses from environment decrease the probability being repeated.

For example: When a parent who often disciplines a child because of his misconduct, the intention is to decrease or to stop the unwanted behaviour.

When a Parent continually stops to provide food to his child because he has been reported bulling people at school, this child is likely to develop a defensive character, aggression, failure at school, lack of confidence, troubled behaviour, confusion, and weak relationship.


3. Suggest strengths and weaknesses of the behaviourists approach

Behaviourist approach presents more scientific coloration (science of behaviour) based on evidence typically empirical. In addition, the theory shows the importance of the environment on behaviour and can explain emotional situation (responses) case of phobias learning. Also, it showed that the theory seems to be more practical in term of his application as treatment of alcoholism by using the desensitisation system.

As weaknesses, the study and importance of mental have been omitted. (cognitive factor) and the approach seems to limit its experiment only on the environment’s role and ignores biological side which may have the impact on...
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