Pulmonary Function Test: The Value among Smokers and Nonsmokers

Topics: Spirometry, Respiratory physiology, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Pages: 11 (3022 words) Published: January 20, 2013
Volume 6, Issue 4 (October – December 2012)


Pulmonary Function Test: The value among smokers and nonsmokers Hani A. Nawafleh 1, Shalabia Al- Sayed Abo Zead2, Dua'a Fayez Al-Maghaireh3 1.Assistant Prof. Community Health Nursing, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Princess Aisha Bint AlHussein, Faculty of Nursing,-Jordan 2.Associated Prof. Al-Hussein Bin Talal University Princess Aisha Bint Al-Hussein, Faculty of NursingJordan 3.Al-Zaytoonah Private University, Faculty of Nursing-Jordan 1.

ABSTRACT Background: Pulmonary function testing is a routine procedure for the assessment and monitoring of respiratory diseases. Aim: To estimate the values of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and nonsmoking students, staff and workers at Al-Zarqa Private University and to study the effect of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) on these variables. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional research design was used. The study was conducted at Al-Zarqa Private University, Jordan. Two hundred and thirteen healthy smokers and nonsmokers were approached through probability sampling among the students, staff and workers of Al-Zarqa Private University were screened through a questionnaire and spirometric test. Data from 213 subjects was used for analysis. Subjects were excluded if pregnant, or with cardiopulmonary disease body, mass index (BMI) not ranging from 17-25, FEV1/FVC% less than 70 or with no reproducible results. Results: Mean FVC, FEV1 FEV1/FVC% and PEFR were found to be lower in smokers than the nonsmokers, there were significant differences between mean spirometric values smoking and nonsmoking in age 20-30 years and 30-39and 40-49. Conclusion: The mean FVC, FEV1 and PEFR were lower in smoker. In order to generalize these reference values, a larger study following the ATS criteria is needed. Health education campaign needed to keep community aware of the risk of smoking. Key words: Smoking, pulmonary function tests, spirometer, nonsmokers, body mass index. CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Dr. Hani Nawafleh, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Princess Aisha Bint Al-Hussien Faculty of Nursing, P.O. Box: 26 Ma;an (71111), Jordan, Tel: 00962-799500048, E-mail: hnawafleh@ahu.edu.jo


Page | 703 E-ISSN: 1791-809X Health Science Journal © All rights reserved www.hsj.gr

Quarterly scientific, online publication by Department of Nursing A’, Technological Educational Institute of Athens


HO estimated that 51% of adult male Jordanians among prevalence are smokers, countries. females is

important worldwide.7



morbidity includes

and three

mortality in chronic tobacco smokers COPD conditions namely chronic bronchitis, emphysema and bronchial asthma which gradually cause chronic obstruction to the airflow in small airways less than 2mm in diameter. These obstructions in airways invariably affect the parameters of pulmonary function e.g. forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in the First Second (FEV1) and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate.7 Water pipe tobacco smoking (nargilah) is highly prevalent in Jordan, although its use is associated with male gender and upper middle income levels; across classes. and also it is widespread sociodemographic surveillance other Continued educational

which place Jordan as number 4 in smoking Smoking Arab in

estimated as 11% which makes Jordan as number 3 in the Arab world regarding female smokers. The country number of Jordan reached 32 in the work as cigarettes’ consumption. It is estimated to be 1832 cigarettes per person per year. The total spending per person per year on cigarettes is estimated to be 139 Jordan Dinar (JD) which ranks Jordan as the country number 62 in the world. In my opinion, these statistics are slightly underestimated and the real figures are probably higher.1 Pulmonary...
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