Breathing Lab

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TOPIC:Examining the capacity of human lungs.
QUESTION: In what ways do gender, height, weight and practicing sports influence the capacity of human lungs?

Breathing is the process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through the mouth or nose due to muscle contraction, and then exhaled due to muscle relaxation. It provides a supply of fresh air to the lungs and removes the building up carbon dioxide, which is the result of cellular metabolism and completely unnecessary for the organism. Therefore, it is an essential mechanism in every living organism.

Tidal volume (TV) is the volume of gas inhaled and exhaled during one respiratory cycle, this volume is equal to approximately 500 milliliters. vital capacity (VC) is the volume of gas that can be expelled from the lungs from a position of full inspiration, with no limit to duration of inspiration; equal to inspiratory capacity plus expiratory reserve volume. This volume is approximately 4.8 liters. Expiratory reserve capacity (ERV) is the maximum volume of air that can be voluntarily exhaled.

This experiment covers the various aspects affecting human lung capacity. The aspects to be tested include weight, height, sex, and physical activity of the subjects. It can be assumed that heavier people have a larger lung capacity, than lighter people and that taller people have a larger lung capacity than shorter people, simply because of ratios. It is also proven that, in general, women have a smaller lung capacity than men, and that athletes have a larger lung capacity than average people. This experiment will test 10 people in the same room, in the same conditions; therefore the variable of air composition is controlled. In this experimental a spirometer will be used to measure the volumes defined above and the breathing rate.

Research question:
How gender, weight, height and regular physical exercises influence lung capacity?

Influence of height, weight, gender and regular physical activities on lung capacity is to be examined. Both Vital Capacity and Tidal Volume are to be taken into consideration. A group of 10 people is required for this laboratory. Since age could possibly be also affecting the lung capacity, group of people at the same age is suggested. In order to investigate the correlation, conduct a survey asking for gender, weight, height and doing regular physical activities (≥ 3 times per week is considered as regular; ≥ 1 hour long). Use spirometer to measure TV and VC. In order to minimize the influence of measurements error on the results three tests for both TV and VC are to be done. After recording the data following procedure to examine the influence of variables is adopted. 1. Influence of weight on the lung capacity is to be examined using Mass Body Index. It is calculated according to the equation:

BMI=Mass (kg)Heightm x Heightm
For every participant BMI is to be calculated and relation between BMI and lung
capacity to be examined for a presence of a correlation.

2. Influence of height is to be examined as follows. Since considering anybody as tall or short is relative thus definition is required. From all the values obtained in the survey calculate mean value. People that are shorter than the mean value are considered as short, people taller then it are considered as tall. Calculate mean values for VC and TV, for both tall and short people and compare. Calculate standard deviations and compare to difference of mean values to assess if differences between lung capacity of tall and short people are significant.

Hypothesis: Taller people will have greater lung capacity.

3. To examine the influence of gender, do as follows. Calculate and compare mean values of TV and VC...
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