Psychosocial Essay

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Explain how sociological and psychological insights help nurses to understand health lifestyles such as smoking Tobacco was first imported into UK in 1565 from America and increased from 2 thousand to 38 million pounds by the end of the 17s century. In the 1800 tobacco was manufactured in the UK, which became more easily available and affordable to people and remained British lifestyle choice ever since. A cigarette contains about 4000 different chemicals that can damage cells and systems of the body BBC HEALTH (2012). According to the NHS statistics 90% of lung cancer is caused by smoking and smoking caused about 80,000 deaths a year. Even though there is a negative link associated to tobacco, smoking became dominant in British culture costing NHS and taxpayers billions of pounds. It is also known that tobacco taxes became a major contribution to the economy. In order to reduce and educate the amount of smokers and potential smokers the government has implement law to ban smoking in public places which became live in 2007 and free smoking pack were giving out to educate people. This essay will identify and discuss how sociological and psychological approaches can help nurses to understand why people smoke. Three Sociological ideas

Cultural Factors
When discussing sociological factors in relation to why people smoke, culture can be included into this discussion. According to Clarke (2010) “people lifestyles are shaped by their traditional values and socially accepted patterns of behaviour found within the communities in which individual and families live in” Culture have a major impact on how we behave, dress, talk, the way we interact with people and habits that we pick up. In many societies smoking is widely spread and it is a source of relaxation and it is a means of socialisation for individual who indulge in the habit. The western society cultural norm may influence youth to smoke, factors such as peer pressure or parents smoking at home. Recent statistics showed that Children who live with parents siblings who smoke are up to 3 times more likely to become smokers themselves than children of non-smoking households ASH (2012). However Bury and Cabe (2004) suggested that culture and class can be combined to provide understanding to what influence individual to make unhealthy lifestyle choice. Culture by itself doesn’t determine what choices individual make. Conrad (2009) suggested that a person is more likely to adopt a specific lifestyle in relation to the area they inhabit and the people whom they are surrounded by, however it can also be said that culture does not always define a person lifestyle and it is individual responsibility to choose to smoke or not to smoke. Socio economic factors including class

When discussing socio economic factors and class in relation for people smoking tobacco, researchers suggest that mortality rate varies among social classes. Carlisle (2012) found that smoking is the biggest cause of inequality in death rated between low and high income people in the UK, and therefore there are more than half the differences in risks of premature death between social classes. According to Larkin (2011) although other factors such as gender and poverty are influential there is a strong link between cigarette smoking and socio economic factors as an example working classes are presumed to lead more unhealthy lifestyle than the middle class and are less likely to involve or undertake health related activities. Conrad (1992) also suggested that low socioeconomic status put children at high risks of smoking, poor health and unhealthy lifestyles occur more frequently among individuals of low socioeconomic status and in deprived areas. There is a number of people who die from smoking every year in the UK, following that the government has banned advertisement that promote smoking, increased tobacco price to encourage low income smokers to quit and has continually endorse a variety of campaign...
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