Analysing Fundamental Issues in Health Development

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Synopsis

This report will focus on smoking behaviours in teenagers. Smoking is……………..? Smoking is the single greatest cause of preventable illness and early death and is an issue of great concern. The report is about behaviour change, models and approaches in teenage smoking. The two that will be looked at are the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and social learning theory (SLT). Section 1- describes the scale of the public health challenge for smoking and gives statistics whilst discussing the health risks associated with smoking. Section 2 - looks at polices that are in place with regards to health and adopting healthy behaviours and lifestyles. Section 3 -discusses behaviour and behaviour change in teenagers and salient areas of concern. Section 4 - looks at a range of behaviour change interventions to find out ‘what works’. It summarises the theory of reasoned action and compares it with the health belief model, it then goes on to Beatties typology and talks in detail of government, community, individual and the groups interventions regarding smoking and what each of these are doing in the area of teenage smoking. Then Section 5 looks at health promotion with regards to planning programmes to intervene and finally section 6 concludes with the reports finding.

Section 1 - Introduction

The chosen topic was selected by speaking to a convenient sample of people in the community in order to assess the implications and effects that health inequalities have on the nation. Many issues were raised in which they identified as impacting on their health; however smoking came top of the list. As smoking is such a vast area the report concentrates on smoking in teenagers as these youngsters are the adults of tomorrow and it is important to break this health affecting behaviour in order to help them refrain from smoking. Research has shows that this nation is faced with many challenges in its efforts to reduce the number of smokers and improve the health status of all people living in the United Kingdom. Smoking is one of the biggest challenges of today as approximately 9 million adults continue to smoke (Department of Heath, 2008) and the health risks are devastating and carry many public health implications. Smoking is a major concern that can lead to many illnesses and life threaten diseases in 2007 there were 82,900 smoking-related deaths among adults aged over 35. (Department of Health, 2008). In England in 2006 the smokers were 23 per cent of men and 21 per cent of women. The highest prevalence of smoking was among 20–24-year-olds and the lowest among those aged 60 and over. Overall the trend is moving in the right direction; with prevalence down from 39 per cent in 1980, smoking rates in England are currently the lowest on record (Department of Health, 2008). Research has suggested that People on low incomes are more likely to smoke. Smoking remains one of the biggest causes of the substantial and growing inequality in health between higher and lower income groups (Townsend, 1994). In 2006, 17 per cent of people in non manual groups smoked compared with 28 per cent in manual groups (Information Centre for Health and Social Care 2008). Smoking rates vary between ethnic groups. Among Bangladeshi, Irish, Pakistani and Black Caribbean men, the percentage of smokers is higher than the national average. The number of women from black and minority ethnic (BME) groups who smoke is lower than the national average, with the exception of Black Caribbean and Irish women (Information Centre for Health and Social Care 2006). Smokeless tobacco is an additional problem in some BME populations, particularly those from South Asia. Among the UK Bangladeshi community, for example, 9 per cent of men and 16 per cent of women regularly chew tobacco (Information Centre for Health and Social Care 2006). Child and adolescent smoking causes serious risks to respiratory health both in the...
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