* During today’s lecture, we will begin our coverage of psychodynamic theories. * First, we will cover Sigmund Freud’s (1914) psychoanalytic theory, Robert Raskin’s (Raskin & Hall, 1979; Raskin & Terry, 1988) related research on the measurement of narcissism, and W. Keith Campbell and Craig Foster’s (2002) related research on narcissism as a predictor of perceived quality of alternatives to current romantic relationships. * Highlights of Chapters 5 and 7 (cont.)
* Next, we will cover Erik Erikson’s (1968) ego psychology, Jean Phinney’s (Phinney & Alipuria, 1990; Phinney & Ong, 2007) related research on ethnic identity, and Stanley Gaines et al.’s (Gaines, Marelich, Bledsoe, Steers, Henderson, Granrose, et al., 1997) related research on ethnic identity as a consequence of individuals’ minority versus majority group status. * Prelude: Divisions within Personality Psychology
* Last Tuesday, we learned that Cronbach (1957) viewed experimental psychology and correlational psychology as two historical streams within psychology. * Furthermore, we learned that according to Cronbach, differential psychology arose within the historical stream of correlational psychology. * Finally, we learned that intelligence and personality are the two main subject areas within differential psychology. * Prelude (cont.)
* Drawing upon Cronbach (1957) and others, William Revelle (1995) pointed out that the field of personality psychology can be further divided among levels of generality: (1) All humans are the same; (2) some (but by no means all) people are the same; and (3) no two humans are the same. * Psychodynamic Theories: Emphasis on Individual Similarities in Personality * Revelle (1995) noted that psychodynamic theories, which delve into presumed unconscious influences on individuals’ behaviour, emphasise individual similarities in personality (i.e., all humans are the same). * Psychodynamic Theories: Acknowledging Individual Differences in Personality * However, as we shall see, psychodynamic theories also acknowledge individual differences in personality (i.e., some, but not all, humans, are the same). * Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud (1895): Studies in Hysteria and the Establishment of the Psychodynamic Perspective * In 1895, Austrian Josef Breuer and his protegee, fellow Austrian Sigmund Freud, published Studies in Hysteria, which was greatly responsible for the establishment of the psychodynamic perspective as the dominant force among personality theories at the time. * Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud’s Studies in Hysteria (1895): Sowing the Seeds for Freud’s (1900) Psychoanalytic Theory * Zvi Lothane (2006) noted that Josef Breuer’s treatment of a client (known as Anna O.) via a “talking cure,” described in Breuer and Freud’s Studies in Hysteria (1895), sowed the seeds for Sigmund Freud’s (1900) The Interpretation of Dreams. * Sigmund Freud’s (1900) The Interpretation of Dreams: Establishment of Psychoanalytic Theory within the Psychodynamic Perspective * In turn, Lothane (2006) observed that Sigmund Freud’s (1900) The Interpretation of Dreams established Freud’s psychoanalytic theory as the dominant force among psychodynamic theories at the time. * Sigmund Freud’s (1900) Psychoanalytic Theory: Uncovering Sexual and Aggressive Motives via the “Talking Cure” of Psychoanalysis * In The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), Sigmund Freud not only made the “talking cure” of psychoanalysis his primary mode of treatment but also argued that psychoanalysis could uncover the influence on sexual and aggressive motives on clients’ behaviour. * End of the Breuer-Freud Working Relationship: Caused by Sigmund Freud’s Emphasis on the Sexual Motive? * Lothane (2006) did not address the end of the working relationship between Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud. * However, legend has it that the relationship ended because of Freud’s...