1. State the definition of motive.
-Specific need or desire, such as hunger, thirst, or achievement that prompts goal-directed behavior
2. What is longitudinal study?
-Study the same group of people over time
-Detailed information about subjects
-Developmental changes can be studied in detail
-Eliminates cohort differences
-Expensive and time consuming
-Potential for high attrition
-Differences over time may be due to assessment tools and not age
3. Which are physical changes in adolescence?
Begins about age 10½ in girls and about 12½ in boys
i. Onset of sexual maturation
ii. First menstrual period for girls
Early and late developers
Adolescent sexual activity
Approximately ¾ of males and ½ of females between 15 and 19 have had intercourse Average age for first intercourse is 16 for boys and 17 for girls Teenage pregnancy
Rate of teen pregnancy has fallen in the last 50 years
Highest in U.S. of all industrialized nations
4. Temperament refers to…
-Temperament refers to characteristic patterns of emotional reactions and emotional self-regulation
5. What does social psychology explores?
-The scientific study of the ways in which the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of one individual are influenced by the real, imagined, or inferred behavior or characteristics of other people
6. Name 3 main sexual orientations.
Heterosexual - Sexual attraction to other gender
Homosexual - Sexual attraction to same gender
Bisexual - Sexual attraction to both genders
7. What is personality?
An individual’s unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations Two key components
-Personality refers to unique differences
-Personality is presumed to be stable and enduring
8. Extroverts are focusing on..
-Focus on external world and social life
9. Freud’s form the basis of psychodynamic theory?
10. Is testosterone important for both man and woman in early development? True
11. Prejudices are…
-An intolerant, unfavorable, and rigid attitude toward a group of people
12. How to adapt a healthy lifestyle?
-Eat a well-balanced diet
-Avoid high risk behaviors
13. Name the most frequent mood disorders.
Depression, Mania, Bipolar Disorder,
14. Describe gender differences in the occupancy of psychological disorders? -More women are in treatment for psychological disorders
-Men who are divorced or separated, or who never married, have a higher rate of mental disorders -Married women have higher rates than married men
-Women have higher rates of anxiety disorders and depression 15. Explain models of the causes of psychological disorders. (essay) Biological factors
-Twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors play a role in development of depression -Mood disorders may be linked to chemical imbalances in the brain
-Maladaptive response to early negative life events that leads to feelings of incompetence and unworthiness -These responses are reactivated whenever a new situation arises that resembles the original events
-Depression is linked to troubled close relationships
-May explain greater incidence of depression in women, who tend to be more relationship-oriented -Depressed people can evoke anxiety and hostility in others, who then withdraw, which in turn can intensify feelings of depression
16. What is posttraumatic stress disorder characterized by?
-Characterized by episodes of anxiety, sleeplessness, and nightmares from a disturbing event in the past -Victims may withdraw from social life or job and family responsibilities
17. Stressors are…
-Events or circumstances that trigger stress
18. Conformity refers to…
-Voluntarily yielding to social norms, even at the expense of one’s own preferences
Conformity across cultures...
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