ST.MARY’S COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Signature of the
Teacher educator J. Rawoofu Nisha
(TRIAL AND ERROR)
|S.NO |CONTENT |PAGE NO | |1 |Introduction |4 | |2 |Concept: Skinner’s Operant Conditioning |4 | |3 |Skinner’s Experiments: |4 | |4 |Reinforcement |5 | |5 |Schedule of Reinforcement |5 | |6 |Shaping |7 | |7 |Educational Implications |7 | |8 |Concept: Trial and Error Learning |8 | |9 |Thorndike’s Experiments |9 | | |Thorndike’s laws of Learning: | | |10 | |10 | |11 |Educational Implications: |10 | |12 |Conclusion |10 | |13 |References |11 |
Knowledge of learning theory is can help answer these questions.
Whether we are lecturing too much, providing enough examples, using too many or too few cues, giving enough feedback, allowing sufficient time for discussion, or providing sufficient opportunities for practice. Such knowledge also helps teachers explain why their classroom techniques promote learning. By providing a focus or point of observation, learning theories help teachers reflect on what they do and why they do it. Reflection is considered one of the principal ingredients of both student learning and teacher self-renewal
Concept: Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
B.F Skinner (1904-1990) introduced the concept of operant conditioning in 1930. This theory is otherwise called as Instructional conditioning, Reinforcement conditioning and Reward learning.
• Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which voluntary behaviours are strengthened or weakened depending upon their consequences or antecedents.
• Operant conditioning is a form of conditioning in which a desired response occurs and is subsequently reinforced to increase its probability of more frequent occurrence
A hungry rat is placed in a box called ‘skinner-box’. This box contains a lever and a device for delivering a pellet of food. The hungry rat moves around restlessly and by chance presses the lever. The rat gets a pellet of food immediately after pressing the lever. The rat eats and soon presses the lever again. The food ‘reinforces’ lever pressing. If the pressing no longer delivers food, the rate of...