Psychological Implication of Teenage Pregnancy

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TEENAGE PREGNANCIES AS A MANAGEMENT ISSUE IN TOWNSHIP SCHOOLS IN GEORGE

Treatise submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Magister Educationis in the Faculty of Education at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.

BY

GRACE SIBONGILE SETHOSA

DATE OF SUBMISSION:

DECEMBER 2007

SUPERVISOR: Dr. J. McFarlane

ABSTRACT This study investigates the causes, consequences and possible solutions of teenage pregnancy. It indicates that socio-economic factors play an important role in the occurrence of teenage pregnancies. In addition the study suggests that a range of factors, including, cultural norms and individual needs, impact on the childbearing decisions of teenage females. The study demonstrates that the most important negative consequences of teenage pregnancy include dropping out of school, unemployment, single parenthood and higher levels of poverty. An important finding of the study is that policies and programmes aimed at reducing teen pregnancy rates, and eliminating the negative consequences experienced by teen mothers and their children, are unlikely to be fully effective unless they realistically address socio-economic imbalances faced by many young women in South Africa.

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DEDICATION I dedicate this study to my younger son Matthews who needed my attention as it was his first year at University. I am proud of you as a young man who has found his own way in life and I treasure you so much, for all the patience you have shown towards me while I was going through the difficult times of my life and in my studies. As from your high school education I was involved with my studies, yet you never complained instead you prospered in your own way and became who you are today.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE NUMBERS

CHAPTER ONE: ORIENTATION
1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7.1 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.10.1 1.10.2 1.11 RATIONALE Socio – economics Background PERSONAL CONTEXT PROFESSIONAL CONTEXT SCHOOL CONTEXT DEMOGRAPHICS PURPOSE JUSTIFICATION Introduction RESEARCH QUESTIONS DEMARCATION OF THE STUDY DEFINITION OF TERMS Introduction Terminology DIVISION OF CHAPTERS

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1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 14 14 15 16 17

CHAPTER TWO:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction 2.1.1 The role of literature review 2.1.2 The Issue on teenage pregnancy 2.2 CAUSES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY 2.2.1 Introduction 2.2.2 The influence of media 2.2.3 Home conditions 2.2.4 The influence of divorce 2.2.5 Coercive Sexual Relations 2.2.6 Cultural Factors 2.2.7 Peer pressure 2.2.8 Problem –solving behaviour 2.2.9 Lack of information about sex and negligence 2.2.10 Poor Socio-economic status as a contributing factor 2.2.10.1 Illiteracy and overcrowding 2.2.11 Poverty as a contributing factor 2.2.12 Childbearing as a career choice for some young women 2.2.13 Socialization and stereotyping as a cause

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2.3

CONSEQUENCES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY

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2.3.1 Introduction 2.3.2 Confusion between adulthood and being a teenager 2.3.3 Decision making 2.3.4 Consequences for the family of the pregnant teenage girl 2.3.5 Feeling of neglect by peers 2.3.6 Consequences for the Society 2.3.7 Health risks 2.3.8 Low self – esteem 2.4 SOLUTIONS TO THE CAUSES AND PROBLEMS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY

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2.4.1 Introduction 2.4.2 counseling the teenage mother as a supportive measure 2.4.3 Building up self – esteem, self-concept and advising learners on decision making to establish their own identity 2.4.4 Support from the professionals 2.4.5 Sex education as part of curriculum 2.5 CONCLUSION OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.3 3.4 Introduction RESEARCH QUESTIONS Introduction RESEARCH TRADITION COMPARING QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH APPROACHES RESEARCH DESIGN ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

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27 27 27 27 28 30 30 30 31 31 31 31

3.5 3.6

3.6.1 Introduction 3.6.2 Letters 3.6.3...
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