Psychoanalysis

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Psychoanalysis

I- Introduction
Psychoanalysis' definition.
II- Body
1-Freud's theory on psychoanalysis.
a- The conscious vs the unconscious.
b- The id, ego, and superego.
c- Oedipus complex.
2- Psychological Analysis of Young Goodman Brown.

III- Conclusion.

Prepared by: Manal Abdul Lateef.

What is psychoanalysis??
Psychoanalysis is a name applied to a specific method of investigating unconscious mental processes and to a form of psychotherapy. The term refers, as well, to the systematic structure of psychoanalysis theory, which is based on the relation of conscious and unconscious psychological processes.

Freud's theory on psychoanalysis.
a- The conscious vs the unconscious.
According to Freud, the mind can be divided into two main parts: 1. The conscious mind includes everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. Freud called this ordinary memory the preconscious 2. The unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences.

b- The id, ego, and superego.
According to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, personality is composed of three elements. These three elements of personality--known as the id, the ego and the superego--work together to create complex human behaviors. The id : The id is an important part of our personality because as newborns, it allows us to get our basic needs met. Freud believed that the id is based on our pleasure principle. In other words, the id wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation. When a child is hungry, the id wants food, and therefore the child cries. When the child needs to be changed, the id cries. When the child is uncomfortable, in pain, too hot, too cold, or just wants attention, the id speaks up until his or her needs are met. The id doesn't care about reality, about the needs of anyone else, only its own satisfaction. If you think about it, babies are not real considerate of their parents' wishes. They have no care for time, whether their parents are sleeping, relaxing, eating dinner, or bathing. When the id wants something, nothing else is important. The Id, according to Freud, “'knows no judgments of value: no good and evil, no morality... [It is] the great reservoir of libido”. From the outset (i.e. birth) the Id includes all the instinctual impulses as well as the destructive instinct. The ego: The ego is based on the reality principle. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, the id's impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification--the ego will eventually allow the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place. In other words, the ego understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run. Its the ego's job to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation. The Ego, says Freud, “attempts to mediate between id and reality”. The superego: The Superego is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. Many equate the superego with the conscience as it dictates our belief of right and wrong. The superego...
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