Psycho Unit 1

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Unit 1

Introduction to Psychology

Psychology: Psychology is the systematic study of behaviour and mental processes including perception, cognition and emotion.

Cognition: is thinking, knowing and processing information.

Perception: mental processes of organising sensations into meaningful patterns

Emotion: changes in facial expressions and adoptive behaviour

Behaviour: is any observable action made by a living person or animal. There are now 2 types of behaviour – overt and covert.

Overt: observable actions and responses (eating and talking)

Covert: internal activities (thinking, remembering)

Psychology is a Science because…
It develops hypothesis’ which can be tested through research It uses research procedures
It relies on systematic data collection
It replicates studies to test results
It challenges existing beliefs
Its avoids emotional reasoning and relies on logic

Goals of Psychology…
Describe – Try to describe how people think, feel and act in a given situation Explain – Try to understand why people, think, feel and act in a given situation Predict – Try to estimate when, where and under what circumstances this behaviour will occur Control (debated) – Try to influence the behaviour

Ethics: refers to standards that guide individuals to identify good, desirable or acceptable conduct

Ethical Considerations in Psychological Research…

The Researcher’s Role: must take ethical issues into consideration and is responsible for ensuring that the research is conducted in a manner that participants welfare is most important

Participant’s Rights: that no psychological or physical harm is caused from research

Confidentiality: test results and personal data cannot be revealed without written consent

Voluntary Participation: participant must not be pressured into participating

Informed Consent: wherever possible participants must be appropriately informed of the type of study and the reasons for research

Deception: sometimes giving participants information about the research can influence the results, so they don’t always tell the truth. The experimenter must make sure participant does not suffer any distress

Debriefing: participants informed of purpose at end of study

Professional Conduct: At all times experimenters are expected to conduct themselves in a professional way

Psychiatrists:
Completes a medical degree
Special in psychiatry (completes a post-grad qualification)
Focus – prevention, treatments, diagnosis of mental health problems Can give patients medical prescriptions

Psychologists:
4 years full time study in psychology (university)
2 years full time post-grad in psychology or 2 years full time practice under supervision Work in a wide range of specialist areas
Uses counselling and various types of therapy

Careers in Psychology…

Academic Psychologist: conducts research in the areas of psychology and works with teachers and supervision of post-grad students

Clinical Psychologist: treats people with mental health problems

Clinical Neuropsychologist: specialises in the assessment and diagnosis of brain impairment

Community Psychologist: mainly concerned with issues and helping people reach their goals

Educational and Developmental Psychologist: provides assessment, intervention and counselling services relevant to management and development of educational issues

Forensic Psychologist: works in the legal system and correctional services

Health Psychologist: works on the promotion and maintenance of health-related behaviour

Organisational Psychologist: helps people function effectively in their work environment

Sport Psychologist: provides psychological assistance to elite athletes

Research Psychologist: uses skills in research design, statistics and data analysis

Empirical Evidence: data or information gained from direct observation

Scientific Method: systematic approach for planning, conducting and reporting...
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