Protista

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Kingdom Protista
Protist: Eukaryotic organisms (usually unicellular) that is not a fungus, plant or animal * 90% are unicellular organisms
* Split based on locomotion
* The kingdom divides into three main sections being: animal-like, plant-like and fungus-like. Then they are split based on their form of locomotion. * They live in moist environments -> aquatic environments or blood. * Even though they are single-celled, they are MUCH larger than Archae and bacteria (refer back to the lab and green phyla). They are also diversely shaped, have different colours and interesting to watch! * Very difficult to analyze these organisms without help from a microscope

Characteristics of Protists
* Categorized as Protists because they do not fit into any other kingdom, opposed to sharing similar characteristics like other kingdoms do (ex. all plants are autotrophic) * Some algae are multicellular and this is what we study about in chp 3…algae -> plants * Three different categories are based on their method of obtaining nutrition

Animal- Like= Protozoa
* 4 different phylum: ciliophora (ciliates), zoomastigina (flagellates), sporozoa, sarcodina * Heterotrophic and some are parasites (sporozoa)
* Parasites: Organisms that benefit from living in or on other organisms at the expense of that organism * Phyla based on locomotion

Plant-like= Algae
* 6 phyla based on their chloroplasts and pigments they have * Autotrophic: make their own food by photosynthesis
* Some consume other organisms in the presence of light & other are symbiotic (live in other organisms- not necessarily beneficial for both parties) * Carry pigments in their chloroplast to carry out photosynthesis * Most common is chlorophyll which is typically green in colour * Lack leaves, stems, roots and water-conducting tissue

Fungus-like= Moulds
* Absorb nutrients from living or death organisms
* Some slime moulds consume other organisms (Note: consume and absorb are TWO different things) * Some water moulds are parasites
* Share characteristics of animal (they glide), plants (have cellulose cell walls) and fungus (produce spores)

Bold words-> Good example to use for test :D !

PROTOZOA
Zoomastigina (a.k.a Flagellates)
* One or more flagella
* Hard, protective covering
* Free-living, parasites and symbiotic
* Parasites: Trypanosoma (African sleeping sickness- human parasites) * Symbiotic: Living in termite guts
* Trichomonas vaginalis: Caught through sexual intercourse

Sarcodina
* Have pseudopodia
* No cell wall meaning they can change shape using their internal cytoskeleton to move and create different forms **pseudopodia** * Most live in animal intestines
* A few parasites, free living
* Application: You must boil water to kill intestinal amoeba so you don’t ingest it and die or have serious diarrhea. * Endamoeba hystolitica feeds on the lining of small intestines and causes amoebic dysentery (serious illness to humans) * Ex. Amoeba

* Reproduce through mitosis
* Feed by phagocytosis
* The ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans. * Pseudopodia to move and capture prey
* Temporary cytoplasmic extension that amoebas use for feeding and movement * Have endoplasm and ectoplasm (basically the cytoplasm)

Ciliophora (a.k.a Ciliates)
* Have cilia (hair-like structures)
* Cilia for locomotion and sweeping food particles long the cell surface to move them into cell * Free-living, parasites and symbiotic
* Free-living: Can be found in water like paramecium (from the lab!) * 2 nuclei
* Macro: control’s cells activities
* Micro: controls reproduction

Sporozoa
* Parasites
* Take nutrients from host
* No flagella, cilia or pseudopodia
* Fewer organelles and specialized structures...
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