Protein texturization is a process of protein transform from a globular state to a fibrous physical structure that contains a sensation of eating meat. Texturized protein products have been defined as “fabricated palatable food ingredients processed from an edible protein source including among other soy grits, soy protein isolates and soy protein concentrate with or without suitable option ingredients added for nutritional or technological purposes.” (R.Y Yada, 2004) Protein products that are texturized will have many functional properties such as elasticity, softness, chewiness and juiciness. The most common preferred protein source for texturization is vegetable proteins. This is due to vegetable proteins lack other desirable functional properties of animal origin display.
Proteins are responsible for the distinct physical structure of a number of foods such as fibrous structure of muscle tissue like fish and meat, the porous structure of bread and the gel structure of some dairy and soy products. Although many plant proteins have a globular structure are available in large amounts, however, they are used only a limited extent in food processing. To transform a fibre-like structure of protein to globular proteins, protein texturization is used to process a protein product with cooking strength and a meat-like structure. This type of product is marketed as spun protein isolates, formed meat analogs, extrusion cooked meat extenders and meat analogs. ( H.D.Belitz,W.Grosch,P.Schieberle, 2009) In recent years, production agriculture and world markets have resulted in an increased interest in texturized vegetable proteins especially in texturized soy-based products. For traditional method, the most popular raw material for production of texturized vegetable proteins in an extrusion system is soy flour. This material was preferred due to its ability to be controlled through the extrusion system in order to produce a quality meat extender. New developments in extruders, improve extruder designs and operation techniques in processing texturized vegetable protein have made it possible to use a wider range of raw materials characteristic for texturization at present. Important characteristics of raw materials of texturization include protein level, protein quality, oil level, fiber level, sugar level and type, and particle size of the raw material. The starting material is often a mixture like soy with lactalbumin, or protein and acidic polysaccharides such as pectin. There are several processes used in manufacture textured vegetable proteins such as spun-fiber texturization, extrusion texturization and steam texturization. In general, the globular protein is unfolded during texturization by breaking the intramolecular binding force. The resultant extended protein chains are stabilizes through interaction with nearby chains. Therefore, there are two ways to achieve texturization, for spin-fiber process, the starting protein is solubilized and the resultant viscous solution is extruded through a spinning muzzle into a coagulating bath while for extrusion process, the starting protein is moistened slightly and at high temperature and pressure, it is extruded with shear force through the orifices of a die. There are several beneficial of protein texturization especially texturized vegetable protein (TVP). According to a 2007 study by researchers Manuel T. Velasquez and Sam J. Bhathena consuming TVP has anti-obesity effects and may also reduce insulin resistance because texturized soy protein contains most of the soybean that providing one of the highest concentrations of isoflavones. Besides, TVP contains 5 % fat that is much less than most of the meat and it is more nutritious than animal fat.
Uses of Protein Texturization:
Protein texturization is very important in food industry and it provides major development in food industry. The most common protein used in texturization is vegetable protein and it is...