Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

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Chapter 2.0
Cell Structure and
Functions
Prokaryotic and
Eukaryotic cell

Cell are grouped
into tissue

Cell as a unit of life
Prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells

Structure and functions:
cell membrane
Microscopic
and
structures of
organelles
plant and animal cell

Cell
prokaryotic
theory
eukaryotic

Plasma
membrane

Organeles
- Nucleus
- mitochondria

Plant
cell

Animal
cell

- ruogh and smooth
endoplasmic reticulum
-Golgi body
--ribosome
--lysosome

compare

--chloroplast
--centriole

animal plant

Cell transport
Passive
transport

Active
transport


Cell Theory

CELL

The Cell Theory

Schleiden

1. All living things are composed
of cells.
2. Cells are the basic units of
structure and function in living
things.
3. New cells are derived from
existing cells by cell division.
4. Cell contain the hereditary
material of an organism which
is passed from parent cell to
daughter cell.

Schwann

Virchow

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
• Nucleus – large membraneenclosed structure that contains the cell’s genetic information.
• Prokaryotes – cells that do not
contain nuclei. (Bacteria)
• Eukaryotes – cells that contain
nuclei. (All other organisms)

Types of cells
“before the
nucleus.”

“True nucleus”

i. Prokaryotic cell

ii. Eukaryotic cell
a. Plant cell

b. Animal cell

Comparison

2.1 Prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells…
Prokaryotic cell
• No nucleus
• A prokaryote is a single-celled
organism
• Very small : 0.5 - 10 μm
(micrometers)

• No membrane-bound
organelles and
• has a single circular
chromosome.

“before the nucleus.”

The Prokaryotic cell – Bacteria

Structure
&
Function

Structure of prokaryotic cell
Single, circular
DNA

Pili
Ribosome

Flagellum

Capsule
Cell Wall

Nucleoid

Plasma
membrane

Structure of prokaryotic cell
Pili

Single, circular DNA

No nuclear
membrane

Ribosome
Flagellum

Capsule
Cell Wall

Nucleoid

Plasma
membrane

dense region of DNA in prokaryotic cell

Structure of prokaryotic cell
Single, circular
DNA

Pili
Ribosome

Flagellum

Capsule
Cell Wall

Nucleoid

Plasma membrane
made up of phospholipids for
exchange of waste product and
nutrients.

Structure of prokaryotic cell
Single, circular
DNA

Pili
Ribosome

Flagellum

Capsule

Cell Wall

Nucleoid

Plasma
membrane

• surround the plasma membrane
• made of peptidoglycan
• maintain the shape and protect the cell.

Structure of prokaryotic cell
Single, circular
DNA

Pili
Ribosome

Flagellum

Capsule
Cell Wall

Nucleoid

Plasma
membrane

polysaccharide or protein coating
secreted outside the cell wall

Cytoplasm

Plasma membrane

Cell Wall

Capsule

Structure of prokaryotic cell
Single, circular
DNA

Pili
Ribosome

used for
movement,
may or may
not be
present.

Flagellum

Capsule
Cell Wall

Nucleoid

 attach to the surface
 for exchange of genetic material
(conjugation).

Plasma
membrane

Structure of prokaryotic cell
Single, circular
DNA

Pili

Ribosome
Flagellum

Capsule
Cell Wall

Nucleoid

tiny organelles found in large
numbers in the cytoplasm

Plasma
membrane

2.1 Prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells…
Eukaryotic cell
• Linear strands of DNA
contained in nucleus
• Contain many organelles,
have membrane bounded
organelles

Eukaryotic cell
• Flagella and cilia, if present
– constructed from a
system of 9 + 2
microtubules
• Eukaryote - Unicellular,
filamentous, multicellular
organism with larger cell
size compared to
prokaryote
- e.g.: Protists, fungi, plant,
animal

9 + 2 microtubules

19

Plant cell

Animal cell

20

Difference

Similarity

21

DIFFERENCES
Prokaryote

Eukaryote

Cell size: 0.5-10 μm
The size is smaller
than eukaryotic cell.
Cell division: Mostly
binary fission

Cell size: 10-100 μm
The size is...
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