A full wave rectifier is a device which is used to rectify all the alternating current components in an alternating supply and make it purely a direct current. The two alternating halves of an alternation current are rectified in a full wave rectifier which is an advantage over a half wave rectifier. Most of electronic devices cannot withstand very high voltage or alternating current due to its intense high power. The use of batteries in all devices is not practical as their replacement and durability is a huge problem as the device has to be dismantled each time for such a replacement. So these rectifiers are used in most of the electronic devices like TV’s, Radios, Chargers and Lightings etc.
There are several stages in a rectifier. Based on their rectification they are classified into two:- The single staged & multi staged. In the multi staged rectifiers, more than two diodes are used and these are used in the above-mentioned devices. The singled staged rectifier has only 2 diodes, the one we are to discuss in this project. The multi diode rectifier has only 2 diodes, the one we are to discuss in this project. The multi diode rectifiers has an efficiency ~ 94.6% while that of the single is only 81.2%.
THEORY INVOLVED :-
The input transformer steps down the A.C mains from 220V to 9V between the centre tap and either of the two ends of the secondary winding. The transformer has a capability of delivering a current Of 500mA.
The 9V A.C appearing across the secondary is the RMS value of the waveform and peak value would be .4826 volts=x The diodes rectify the A.C waveform appearing across the secondary with the help of alternate forward and reverse biasing. The capacitor further filters 99% of the resident components and this is left to pass through the resistance and emerges out as +ve and –ve. The bulb connected verifies the output as it works on Direct Current and if used on an Alternating Current, the fluctuation will burn out the bulb.
MATERIALS REQUIRED IN THE CONSTRUCTION :-
Connecting wires, a plug, single lead wire - 2m, card board, a transformer, a filter, a resistor (1 K) Ω, P-N junction diodes, Insulation tape, Blades, soldering wax, soldering lead and soldering iron.
Details of the materials used :-
i) Connecting Wires and a Plug.
ii) A normal insulated copper wire able to withstand 220-250V is required.
iii) Single Lead wire-Thin wire with one single strand of copper well insulated and able to conduct a current of 1 ampere or a D.C current efficiently.
iv) A card Board.
v) Soldering wax & lead.(The wires are to be soldered firmly to make the connection tight so for this a thin lead wire is required to affix the connections and wax to make the lead to hold on when soldered).
vi) L.E.D – It is called light emitting diode(L.E.D). It is used to test the output voltage whether Direct or not. It glows on as we get a rectified direct current as an output.
vii) Step Down Transformer-
A 9-0-9 transformer Transformer is a device used to change the voltage of an alternating current. The transformer which converts low voltage to high voltage is called a step up transformer whereas the one which converts high voltage to low voltage is called a step down transformer. It consists of laminated core consisting of two coils, a primary & a secondary coil. In a step up the number of turns in the secondary is greater that of the primary and the reverse in a step down transformer. Here we use a step down transformer which steps down 220V to 9V between the secondary terminals and the centre tap.
viii) Filter - It is used to filter the the ripples, which is present in the output of the diode to an extent. Here we have used 1000MFD25V filter.
ix) A Resistor- A resistor is electronic components whose resistance value tells us about the opposition it offers to the flow of electric current. Resistance is measured in ohms (Ω).We determine the value...