Project Report in Npa of Pnb Bank

Only available on StudyMode
  • Topic: Palladium, Catalytic converter, Platinum
  • Pages : 16 (5577 words )
  • Download(s) : 80
  • Published : April 26, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
ABSTRACT

The United States is dependent on imports of platinum-group metals (PGMs), which includes platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, and iridium. PGMs are used in a wide variety of applications, including vehicle catalysts for controlling vehicle pollution, chemical catalysts and coatings, dental alloys, electronic components and computer hard discs, fuel cells for power generation, glassmaking equipment, investment coinage, jewelry, medicines, and petroleum catalysts for gasoline refining. A potential application for PGMs in the future is fuel cells. In 2002, the United States relied on imports for approximately 93 percent of its platinum requirements and 69 percent of its palladium requirements. Most production of PGMs originates from only two countries, Russia and South Africa. The worldwide physical supply of PGMs is influenced by cost of production, environmental consequences, government policies, industry decisions, market price, sociocultural trends, substitution issues, and technological factors. After studying these factors, this study projects that world platinum production capacity, an approximation of maximum supply, could increase by as much as 69,000 kg from primary capacity and 22,000 kg from recycling, or 38 percent between 2003 and 2010. World production capacity of palladium could increase by as much as 89,000 kg from primary capacity and 107,000 kg from recycling, or 68 percent between 2003 and 2010. World production capacity of other PGMs could increase by as much as 10,500 kg from primary capacity and 7,100 kg from recycling, or 25 percent between 2003 and 2010, as new primary capacity comes on line and with increased recycling of PGM from autocatalysts and electronics. Assuming historical average annual growth levels over the 1985 to 2003 period, minimum platinum use, based on primary platinum purchases and recycling estimates, use could increase by about 65,000 kg between 2003 and 2010, 66 percent from primary purchases and 34 percent from recycling. Palladium use could increase by about 140,000 kg between 2003 and 2010, 14 percent from primary purchases and 76 percent from recycling. Actual supply and demand would likely fall between these levels.

Acknowledgments
The authors wish to recognize their U.S. Geological Survey colleagues George J. Coakley, Richard M. Levine, and Michael L. Zientek for their insightful comments and substantive technical contributions in the development of this report. The authors also would like to thank Ashok Kumar, Director, A-1 Specialized Services & Supplies, Inc., a recycler of automotive converter/catalysts, for his technical assistance in developing estimates of the amounts of PGM recovered from recycling.

Introduction
Platinum-group metals (PGMs) include platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, and iridium. PGMs are used in a wide variety of applications such as vehicle catalysts for controlling vehicle pollution, chemical catalysts and coatings, dental alloys, electronic components and computer hard discs, fuel cells for power generation, glassmaking equipment, investment coinage, jewelry, medicines, and petroleum catalysts for gasoline refining. Although most of our Nation’s consumption of platinum and palladium is in the manufacture of catalytic converters, a major potential application for the future may be in fuel cells. A 2003 presidential initiative proposed a 5-year, US$1.7 billion cooperative research program between the public and private sectors to develop fuel cell use in businesses, cars and trucks, and homes by 2010 and develop a commercially practical hydrogen-powered vehicle by 2020. The United States is dependent on PGM imports. Most mine production of PGMs originates from only two countries, Russia and South Africa. In 2002, the United States relied on imports (over half from South Africa) for approximately 93 percent of its platinum requirements and 69 percent of its palladium requirements (of which 44...
tracking img