Projects are composed of process. A process is “a series of action bringing about a result”. Project processes are performed by people and generally fall into one of two major categories: 1.
Project management processes are concerned with describing and organizing the work of the project. 2.
Product-oriented processes are concerned with specifying and creating the project product. These processes are known as project life cycle. It is important to note that many of the processes within project management are iterative in nature. This is mainly due to the existence of and the necessity for progressive elaboration in a project throughout the project life cycle. This means that the more you know about your project, the better you are able to manage it. Apart from the tools, methods, techniques and processes, an effective project management requires organizational support, as well as teams as building blocks.
The project management process, as happens with any other process, receives certain Inputs (business need, problem or opportunity) and constraints (time, cost, quality, Technical aspects, social, political and environmental conditions, legal restrictions, etc.) and by applying the appropriate mechanisms (techniques, tools, equipment, organization, Human resources, etc.) it produces specific output (project deliverables). The following diagram illustrates the project management process.
A good project management discipline will not eliminate all risks, issues and surprises, but will provide standard processes and procedures to deal with them and help prevent the following:
1. Projects finishing late, exceeding budget or not meeting customer expectations 2. Inconsistency between the processes and procedures used by different projects managers.
3. Unorthodox way of delivering success to a project through high stress levels, significant amounts of overtime and based solely on the goodwill of some individuals 4. Project management seen as not adding value and as a waste of time and money 5. Unforeseen internal or external events impacting the project.nt
The Project Management Processes:
There are two different lifecycles that work in conjunction with one another throughout the course of every project: the project life cycle which has been presented in Project Management Life Cycle. While the project processes may be different for specific products and services, the project management processes will always be the same regardless of the project processes being employed. However, both processes overlap and interact throughout the project. For example, the project implementation schedule cannot be developed in the absence of some basic understanding of how the deliverables are produced. Project management processes can be organized into four main groups of one or more Processes each:
• Initiating processes
• Planning processes
• Executing & Controlling processes
• Closing processes
There are links between the process groups in the sense that the outcome of one is usually an input to another. In addition, the process groups are overlapping activities that occur at varying levels of intensity throughout each phase of the project and not one-time events. The project management processes that are applicable to most projects, most of the time, are described in this chapter, except from the initiating processes which are analytically.
Overview of the project management elements/Knowledge areas: This section will show you the elements that make up project management. We will deal with most of these areas in more detail. Project management is broken down into the following elements: 1. Project scope management
This refers to the planning of the project. You must think about all the elements that will make up your project in detail before you begin planning. 2. Project time management
This is an important aspect of project management. You need to make sure that you plan in detail how much time an...
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