INTRODUCTION TO HRM
Human Resource Management (HRM) is a relatively new approach to managing people in any organisation. People are considered the key resource in this approach. it is concerned with the people dimension in management of an organisation. Since an organisation is a body of people, their acquisition, development of skills, motivation for higher levels of attainments, as well as ensuring maintenance of their level of commitment are all significant activities. These activities fall in the domain of HRM. Human Resource Management is a process, which consists of four main activities, namely, acquisition, development, motivation, as well as maintenance of human resources. Scott, Clothier and Spriegel have defined Human Resource Management as that branch of management which is responsible on a staff basis for concentrating on those aspects of operations which are primarily concerned with the relationship of management to employees and employees to employees and with the development of the individual and the group. Human Resource Management is responsible for maintaining good human relations in the organisation. It is also concerned with development of individuals and achieving integration of goals of the organisation and those of the individuals. Northcott considers human resource management as an extension of general management, that of prompting and stimulating every employee to make his fullest contribution to the purpose of a business. Human resource management is not something that could be separated from the basic managerial function. It is a major component of the broader managerial function. French Wendell, defines ―Human resource management as the recruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and motivation of human resources by the organisation‖. According to Edwin B. Flippo, ―Human resource management is the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, resources to the end that individual and societal objectives are accomplished‖. This definition reveals that human resource (HR) management is that aspect of management, which deals with the planning, organising, directing and controlling the personnel functions of the enterprise.
NATURE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
The emergence of human resource management can be attributed to the writings of the human religionists who attached great significance to the human factor. Lawrence Appley remarked, ―Management is personnel administration‖. This view is partially true as management is concerned with the efficient and effective use of both human as well as non-human resources. Thus human resource management is only a part of the management process. At the same time, it must be recognized that human resource management is inherent in the process of management. This function is performed by all the managers. A manager to get the best of his people, must undertake the basic responsibility of selecting people who will work under him and to help develop, motivate and guide them. However, he can take the help of the specialized services of the personnel department in discharging this responsibility. The nature of the human resource management has been highlighted in its following features: •Inherent Part of Management : Human resource management is inherent in the process of management. This function is performed by all the managers throughout the organisation rather that by the personnel department only. If a manager is to get the best of his people, he must undertake the basic responsibility of selecting people who will work under him.
•Pervasive Function : Human Resource Management is a pervasive function of management. It is performed by all managers at various levels in the organisation. It is not a responsibility that a manager can leave completely to someone else. However, he may secure advice and help in managing people from experts who have special competence...