Problems of Rmg Sector in Bangladesh

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University of Wollongong

Research Online
University of Wollongong Thesis Collection University of Wollongong Thesis Collections

2007

A study on labour rights implementation in readymade garment (RMG) industry in Bangladesh: Bridging the gap between theory and practice M. Monjur Morshed
University of Wollongong

Recommended Citation
Morshed, M Monjur, A study on labour rights implementation in readymade garment (RMG) industry in Bangladesh: bridging the gap between theory and practice, MSocChgDev-Res thesis, Centre for Asia Pacific Social Transformation Studies, University of Wollongong, 2007. http://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/40

Research Online is the open access institutional repository for the University of Wollongong. For further information contact Manager Repository Services: morgan@uow.edu.au.

A Study on Labour Rights Implementation in Readymade Garment (RMG) Industry in Bangladesh - Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree

Master of Social Change and Development (Honours)

from

THE UNIVERSITY OF WOLLONGONG

by

M Monjur Morshed Centre for Asia Pacific Social Transformation Studies (CAPSTRANS) 2007

THESIS CERTIFICATION

I, M Monjur Morshed, declare that this thesis, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master of Social Change and Development (Research), in the Centre for Asia Pacific Social Transformation Studies (CAPSTRANS), University of Wollongong, is wholly mine unless otherwise referenced or acknowledged. The document has not been submitted for qualifications or other purposes at any other institution.

M Monjur Morshed 23rd August, 2007

TABLE OF CONTENTS THESIS CERTIFICATION TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION Background Aims and Objective of the Research Methodology I II IV V VII VIII 1- 5 1 3 4

5 Structure of the Thesis CHAPTER 1: GLOBAL RELOCATION AND RISING OF BANGLADESHI RMG 6 - 44 INDUSTRY 1.1 Overview of the Garment Industry 1.2 Shift and Relocation of Global Garment Production 1.3 Features of the Migration and Expansion of Global RMG Chain 1.4 Overview of The Bangladeshi Economy 1.5 Growth of the Readymade Garment Industry in Bangladesh 1.7 Structure, Production and Employment Pattern of the RMG 1.8 Growth of Other Sectors as a Result of RMG Growth 6 11 15 20 39 43

22 1.6 Factor

CHAPTER 2: LABOUR MARKET AND FEMALE GARMENT WORKERS IN BANGLADESH 45 – 78 2.1 Overview of Labour Market Scenario in Bangladesh 2.2.1 Migratory Status 2.2.2 Age 2.2.3 Education 2.2.4 Marital Status 2.2.5 Housing and Living Conditions 2.2.6 Gender Segregated Occupation and Economic Status 2.3 Positive Impacts of Female Garment Workers’ Employment 2.4 Negative Impacts 2.5 Positioning in a Transit Society II

45 2.2 Femal 54 56 58 59 60 62 64 69 76

2.6 Female Garment Workers’ Representation in Collective Organizations CHAPTER 3: LABOUR RIGHTS IN RMG INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH 3.1 A Brief History of International Labour Standards 3.2 Labour Standards in RMG Industry 3.3 Multinational Enterprises and Labour Rights 3.4 Recent Labour Unrest in Garment Industry 3.5 Labour Law in Bangladesh

77 79-126 80 84 110 114 120

CHAPTER 4: GLOBALIZATION, LABOUR RIGHTS AND SUSTAINABILITY OF BANGLADESHI RMG INDUSTRY 126 - 176 4.1 Conceptualizing Globalization and Trade Liberalization 4.2 Trade Liberalization in Bangladesh 4.3 Effects of Globalization on Bangladesh Economy 4.4 Globalization, Trade and Labour Rights 4.5 Implementing Labour Rights: Areas of Concern 4.6 Sustaining the RMG Industry CONCLUSION` BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES 126 131 136 144 152 162 177 182 187

III

List of Tables and Figures

Table 1.1: Comparative Statement on Export of RMG and Total Export Table 1.2: Labour cost in RMG sector in selected countries Table 1.3: Region-wise Share of RMG Export Table 2.1 Indicators of...
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