Prison Reform Rehabilitation Process
July 13, 2013
Prison Reform is presented through the penal system in an effort to improve prisons, provided not only but also punishment rehabilitative efforts as well. Rehabilitation is one of the philosophical reasons for sentencing. The general area that will be studied within prison reform is its rehabilitation process. We will study the rehabilitation process as it pertains to both male and female. This study will also show whether or not the criminal justice efforts to reform criminals so that they may become law-abiding citizens are working. Finally we will show what some contributing factors of repeat offenders are and what can be done to improve the penal systems rehabilitation process. Rehabilitation
What is Rehabilitation? As early as the 19th century, the criminal justice system has gone through great efforts to prevent crime, to no avail crime and the way criminals commit crimes continue to grow. There are a high number of crime rates in this country and the rehabilitation process is meant to reform prisoners to make them law-abiding citizens; however, despite the many efforts and programs in place to aid in the rehabilitation process the numbers of repeat offenders continue to grow. Studies of recidivism rates showed that in the late 70s rehabilitative sentencing was more ideal than reality. At which time statistical data displayed that 90% of previously convicted offenders continued to commit crimes after their release from prison (Schmalleger, 2011). It was suggested that the government become stricter with its sentencing policies, whereby introducing indeterminate sentencing. Indeterminate sentencing is a form of sentencing that encourages the criminal to go along with the rehabilitation process (Schmalleger, 2011). That is because this form of sentencing does not state a specific amount a time an offender has to serve but rather gives a time frame of when a criminal may be released such as 10- 20 years. Without knowing for sure the amount of time one has to serve, it urges the criminal to follow along with the rehabilitation process. The rehabilitation and sentencing methods are at the judge’s discretion. Rationale
The rehabilitation process is in place at this time has not been very effective. What must be established will help it work and what can we do to help both genders be successful. People are continuing to re-offend at high rates even after serving prison time, completing community corrections, and intense re-entry programs. According to James Gilligan, clinical professor of psychiatry at NYU, more than 90% of prisoners re-offend within a few years; this staggering number includes men and women. We also must keep in mind that there are far less female prisoners than there are male prisoners. Females must be handled differently from men; females must overcome some unique social, emotional, and physical challenges that impede their ability to integrate smoothly back into society following a period of incarceration (NIJ, 2005). Past research has shown that male rehabilitation programs were implemented for them in the past, can work for female offenders if they are modified to fit the needs of women. Many women have problems that evolve around drug abuse, sexual abuse either as a child or adult, and issues with children must be addressed. They are also more apt to identify with other women, which in these cases, female counselors should be used. Males tend to respond better with other males because they can relate on many levels even though their struggles are different. Males tend to be more violent than females but studies show that if they were severely punished as a child, you are prone to be more violent as an adult. Males may have difficulty in life if they have not had a positive role model during their childhood to show them how strong a man can be. They also have children who have been left to be raised by females...
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