Printing Technology

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GLOSSARY OF FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTING TERMS

AA: Authors Alterations, changes other than corrections, made by a client after the proofing process has begun. AA's are usually charged to a client as billable time.

Abrasion: Process of wearing away the surface of a material by friction.

Abrasion marks: Marks on a photographic print or film appearing as streaks or scratches, caused by the condition of the developer. Can be partially removed by swabbing with alcohol.

Abrasion resistance: Ability to withstand the effects of repeated rubbing and scuffing. Also called scuff or rub resistance.

Abrasion test: A test designed to determine the ability to withstand the effects of rubbing and scuffing.

Abrasiveness: That property of a substance that causes it to wear or scratch other surfaces.

Absorption: In paper, the property which causes it to take up liquids or vapors in contact with it. In optics, the partial suppression of light through a transparent or translucent material.

Acceptance sampling or inspection: The evaluation of a definite lot of material or product that is already in existence to determine its acceptability within quality standards.

Accelerate: In flexographic printing, as by the addition of a faster drying solvent or by increasing the temperature or volume of hot air applied to the printed surface. Electrical - To speed rewind shafts during flying splices, and in taking up web slackness.

Accordion Fold: Bindery term, two or more parallel folds which open like an accordion.

Acetone: A very active solvent used in packaging gravure inks; the fastest drying solvent in the ketone family.

Activator: A chemistry used on exposed photographic paper or film emulsion to develop the image.

Additive primaries: In color reproduction, red, green and blue. When lights of these colors are added together, they produce the sensation of white light.

Adhesion: 1) The sticking together of any two materials, e.g., adhesion of ink to paper or film. 2) The attractive force that exists between an electrodeposit and its substrate that can be measured as the force required to separate the two.

Adsorb: To attract and hold molecules on a surface, e.g. solvent molecules in a solvent recovery adsorption bed.

After-tack: Tack that develops after ink has apparently dried or after a heat-drying operation.

Against the Grain: At right angles to direction of paper grain.

Age resistance: Shelf life. The resistance to deterioration by oxygen and ozone in the air, by heat and light, or by internal chemical action.

Age stability: A test to determine whether an ink formulation can withstand a specific temperature for a specified period without change.

Agglomeration: A cluster of undispersed particles.
Alcohol: A series of organic compounds characterized by the presence of the hydroxyl group; volatile solvents, the most common being ethyl alcohol.

Aliphatic solvents: Saturated hydrocarbon solvents derived from petroleum, such as hexane, heptane and VM&P naphtha, used primarily in A-type gravure inks, or as diluents for other inks and coatings.

Alkaline paper: Paper made with a synthetic alkaline size and an alkaline filter like calcium carbonate which gives the paper over four times the life (200 years) of acid sized papers (40-50 years).

Alkali resistance: Property of an ink, coating or substrate so that it resists film breakdown, color change or color bleed when printed material is subjected to contact with alkaline materials such as soap or detergent.

Alteration: Change in copy of specifications after production has begun.

Alumina hydrate: Also known as hydrate. A white, inorganic pigment used as an extender in inks and noted for its transparency.

Aluminum coating: A coating composed of aluminum paste or powder and a mixing varnish or vehicle.

AM (Amplitude Modulation): Halftone screening, as opposed to FM screening, has dots of variable size...
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