Principles of Development

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PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT
Early foundations are critical.
Role of maturation and learning.
Follows definite and predictable pattern.
All individuals are different.
Each phase has characteristic behaviour.
Each phase of development has hazards.
Development is aided by simulation.
devt: is affected by cultural changes.
Social expectations in every stage.
Traditional beliefs about people of all ages.
STAGES IN LIFE SPAN
1.PRE-NATAL PERIOD – CONCEPTION - BIRTH
2.INFANCY -Birth- end of 2w
3.BABYHOOD - 2w- 2y
4.EARLY CHILDHOOD -2-6
5.LATE CHILDHOOD -6-12
6.PUBERTY -10/11 -13/14
7.ADOLESCENCE -13/14 - 18
8.EARLY ADULTHOOD -18-40
9.MIDDLE AGE -40-50 MA / 50-60 LA
10.OLD AGE -60 -Death
Pre-natal
270-280 days. 10 lunar months
Basic body structure and organs form
Rapid physical growth
Vulnerability to environmental influence is great
1.Heredity endowment
2.Heredity potentials influenced strongly by envt.
3.Fixing up of sex
4.High rate of growth(1cell to 20 inches length)
5.Period of hazards
6.Attitude of significant people
Pre-natal Hazards
Period of Zygote
starvation,
Lack of Uterine preparation
implanting wrongly,
Period of Embryo
miscarriage,
Developmental irregularities
Period of Foetus
miscarriage,
Pre-maturity,
delivery complications,
developmental Irregularities,
Factors influence development
Age of mother,
Illness and infections
Blood RH factor
Birth complications
Drugs, x-rays, envtl. Hazards,
Paternal factors-smok,alcohol, radiations , pesticide
Maternal emotions
Diet and physical condition of the mother
Hormones
Infancy- neonate.
Extreme helplessness
Shortest period
Radical adjustment
Loss of weight
Disorganized behaviour
High mortality
Physical devt.
Increase height& weight, muscles
Bones and skeleton transformed
Brain cells grows
Breast feeding starts
Reflex of new born
Sex determination
Nature –Nurture influence
*physical- obesity,aging
*cognitive-IQ
*psycho-social- Personality-reacting to situations, extrovert, depression, leadership,nail biting,sleepwalking,other emotions & disorders like schizophrenia, infantile autism, alcoholism. Sensory capacity increases

Touch is the earliest sense
Smell- can distinguish different odour
Taste sense well developed
Hearing is least developed
Vision- half of the adult- color vision is absent or minimal SIDS-sudden infant death syndrome-crib death
Motor development
Head control
Hand control
Locomotion
Grasping
Rolling over
Sitting up
Crawling
Standing
Common problems
Unfavorable parental environment
Multiple birth
Complicated birth
Post maturity- pre-maturity
Infant mortality
Psychological –traditional beliefs
Helplessness , developmental lag, plateau, lack of stimulation, new parent blue, unfavorable attitude,.. Babyhood
1.True foundation,- 2.,Age of rapid growth & devt. ,3Decreasing dependency 4 Increased individuality 5 Beginning of socialization 6.Sex role typing 7.Appealing age 8,Age of creativity Hazardous-----(Ph)mortality, crib death, illness, accidents, malnutrition, foundation of obesity, habits, (Psy)-delayed motor devt., delayed speech, emotional,play,social, family, // Rolling over , Sitting up, Crawling , Standing

Play years 2-6
Physical growth ,Language devt.- chatter box , Socialisation , Peer influence, Negativism, self-centered, increased independence .Trust-vs-mistrust ,Personality-emotional, temperamental, cognitive

activity level-
regularity & predictability
approach/withdrwal- initial response
Age of troublesome, pre-school, pre-gang age
Child abuse & neglect
Causes__ characteristics of abuser
90% at home, 90% not psychotic, unrealistic expectations Victim
Families
Communities
Cultures
Parent – child...
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