Table of Contents
Title: Principles of Behaviouralism in Human Being
1.0 Introduction 3 2.0 Human Behaviour From Classical Conditioning Perspective 4 3.1 Pavlov’s Classic Experiment 4 3.2 Watson’s Little Albert Experiment 5 3.3 Other Characteristics of Classical Conditioning 6
3.0 Human Behaviour Is Learned Or Not Learned 8 4.4 Learn because of curiosity and for self satisfaction 8 4.5 Learn to be rewarded and to avoid punishment 8 4.6 Theory of needs and self motivation 9 4.7 Classical conditioning as an advertisement agent 9
4.0 Conclusion 11 5.0 References 12
Learning is an acquisition of knowledge and skills whereby we learn, we increase our knowledge and skills. It is generally a voluntary process which means that we are often in control of what and how we learn. Learning can also be enhanced through time and effort qualitatively. But the quality of learning may deteriorate with time due to aging process. For instance, as we grow older, we may not be able to remember the things we have learnt.
Generally, learning theories can be classified into three main categories; those are Behaviourism, Cognitive and Constructivism. Behaviourism evolved from the work of behaviourists who emphasised the role of experience in determining human activity. One of the earliest influences to the behaviouristic view of learning was Aristotle’s concept of the association of ideas between two similar or opposite events. This approach to learning was further developed by few behaviourists who believed that learning occurred when there was a change in behaviour and internal mental states were not important factors in the study of learning. According to Bandura, A, 1986, “a learning theory comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance which is thought to bring about those changes”. For example, individuals who are intrinsically motivated are observed to exhibit the same performance consistently. They show excellent performance because they are self motivated and not because they have received any reward from other people.
The behavioural approaches of learning focus on the importance of making connections or associations between experiences and behaviour. Two such approaches are Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning. Classical conditioning illustrates Ivan Pavlov’s, a Russian physiologist work who trained his dogs to respond by salivating to the sound of bells that signalled the delivery of food. Unlike operant conditioning, classical conditioning illustrates S R (Stimulus-Response) learning. Operant conditioning, however, is seen as R S (Response-Stimulus) learning. This is because it is the consequence that determines whether a particular response is likely or unlikely to occur again. In other words, learning is the result of...