Principles and Practice of Management

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ASSIGNMENT
ON
PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE
OF
MANAGEMENT

Topic : SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS

Submitted By : sani
I MBA, Mangalore University

Submitted To : Mr. Manjunath Naik Lecturer, MBA Dept Mangalore University

Date of submission : 20 -11-2012

SL.NO| CONTENTS| PAGE.NO|
1| INTRODUCTION| 4|
2| THE CLASSICAL APPROACH| 6|
3| THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH| 11|
4| THE QUANTITATIVE APPROACH| 14|
5| THE SYSTEMS APPROACH| 16|
6| THE CONTIGENCY APPROACH| 18|
7| CONCLUSION| 19|
8| BIBLIOGRAPHY| 20|
INDEX

SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION:
The schools of management thought are theoretical frameworks for the study of management. Each of the schools of management thought are based on somewhat different assumptions about human beings and the organizations for which they work. Since the formal study of management began late in the 19th century, the study of management has progressed through several stages as scholars and practitioners working in different eras focused on what they believed to be important aspects of good management practice. Over time, management thinkers have sought ways to organize and classify the voluminous information about management that has been collected and disseminated. These attempts at classification have resulted in the identification of management schools. The following Table provides a brief summary of five major schools of management thought, their approximate dates of origin, and their relative areas of emphasis.

The various schools of management can be put into five broad categories. They are: A) The classical approach
B) The behavioral approach
C) The quantitative approach
D) The systems approach
E) The contingency approach

A)THE CLASSICAL APPROACH:
One of the first schools of management thought, the classical management theory, developed during the Industrial Revolution when new problems related to the factory system began to appear. Managers were unsure of how to train employees (many of them non-English speaking immigrants) or deal with increased labor dissatisfaction, so they began to test solutions. As a result, the classical management theory developed from efforts to find the “one best way” to perform and manage tasks. This school of thought is made up of three branches. They are: 1) Scientific management

2) Administrative principles
3) Bureaucratic organization

1) SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT:
* Contribution of F.W.Taylor: The scientific management school is primarily attributed to the ideas and works of Fredrick.W.Taylor, who is known as the “the father of scientific management”. He is well known for his famous work, “The Principles of Scientific Management”, published in 1911, which became the foundation of scientific management movement. Taylor was interested in replacing the traditional management by scientific management by developing the most scientific and rational principles for handling people, machines, materials, and money and to secure maximum benefits for the employers as well as employees. He offered 4 principles as basis for scientific management. They are: a) Every job should be broken into its elements and a scientific method to perform each element should be established. b) The scientific selection of workers, so that each worker would be given responsibility for the task for which he or she was best suited. c) The scientific education and development of the worker.

d)...
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