Preventive Measures Towards Crime Against Women

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Preventive Measures towards crime against women

Violence against women is a technical term used to collectively refer to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. Similar to a hate crime, this type of violence targets a specific group with the victim's gender as a primary motive. The United Nations General Assembly defines "violence against women" as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life." The 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women noted that this violence could be perpetrated by assailants of either gender, family members and even the "State" itself. Worldwide governments and organizations actively work to combat violence against women through a variety of programs. A UN resolution designated 25 November as International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.

Although Women may be victims of any of the general crimes such as ‘Murder’, ‘Robbery’, ‘Cheating’, etc, only the crimes which are directed specifically against Women are characterised as ‘Crimes Against Women’. Various new legislations have been brought and amendments have been made in existing laws with a view to handle these crimes effectively. These are broadly classified under two categories. (1) The Crimes under the Indian Penal Code (IPC)

(i) Rape (Sec. 376 IPC)
(ii) Kidnapping & Abduction for specified purposes (Sec. 363 -373 IPC) (iii) Homicide for Dowry, Dowry
Deaths or their attempts (Sec. 302/304-B IPC)
(iv) Torture - both mental and physical (Sec. 498-A IPC) (v) Molestation (Sec. 354 IPC)
(vi) Sexual Harassment (Eve Teasing) (Sec. 509 IPC)
(vii) Importation of girls (upto 21 years of age) (Sec. 366-B IPC) (2) The Crimes under the Special & Local Laws (SLL)
Although all laws are not gender specific, the provisions of law affecting women significantly have been reviewed periodically and amendments carried out to keep pace with the emerging requirements.S The gender specific laws for which crime statistics are recorded throughout the country are – (i) Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956

(ii) Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
(iii) Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 (iv) Sati Prevention Act, 1987

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Factors Contributing to Increased Violence against Women:
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In recent years the incidents of women violence have increased significantly in South Asia. There are different socio-economic, political, cultural and religious components, which have contributed to the increased vulnerability of women to male violence, are as under: -------------------------------------------------

1. Male Dominated Society:
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As a male dominated society men in all sphere of their life dominate the women of Indian subcontinent. In her life cycle a women depends on father, brother, husband and lastly their sons. Besides, they are dominated and oppressed in every sector by the male members. Owing to such dependency, the male members think that they always direct women and all services should be centered to the interest of the male. -------------------------------------------------

2. Socio-Economic Factors:
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The disruption in the traditional rural economic pattern brought about by changing socio-economic processes has adverse effects on women. Both the economically and socially are vulnerable in the society. Traditional socio-cultural practices, low rate of education, lack of employment opportunity, and low nutritional and health status etc. are some of the factors responsible for holding low social...
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