Preparing Esters by Esterification Method Using Carboxylic Acid to an Alcohol, Which Is 1.0 Ml of Ethanoic Acid to the Ethanol, and Ethanoic Acid to the Propan-1-Ol, Also Adding H2So4 as a Catalyst for the Reaction

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Preparing Esters by esterification method using carboxylic acid to an alcohol, which is 1.0 ml of ethanoic acid to the ethanol, and ethanoic acid to the propan-1-ol, also adding H2SO4 as a catalyst for the reaction

Abstract:
Esters are a group of organic compound, famous for their interesting odours and smells. In this investigation student used ethanoic acid and ethanol with sulfuric acid as catalyst to produce ester, which was known of its smell. However it was expected to have a pleasant smell, but it has a smell like a nail polish in cold water and a vinegar in hot water. While the second test was ethanoic acid and propan-1-ol and it has a similar smell like that of ethanoic acid and ethanol, although the product of ethanoic acid and ethanol had a stronger smell but both of them smelled like nail polish remover plus a little vinegar. It was expected to have a pleasant smell, but the characteristic flavors and fragrances nature are due to compounds with the ester functional group. It was done properly overall. Introduction:

Esters have a very sweetly fruity smell. Obviously occurring esters are found in fruits. An ester is the product of the reaction between an acid (usually organic) and an alcohol. Esters essentially result from the condensation (a reaction that produces water) of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. The process is called esterification. This reaction can be catalyzed by the presence of H+ ions. However H2SO4 is often used as a catalyst for this reaction. This is the most common method for making esters. R-OH + R’-COOH ←→ R’-COO-R + H2O

Esterification is an equilibrium reaction, which means that the reaction does not completely go to completion, and it is not likely to get a 100% yield of ester by this method. To overcome this difficulty, a large excess of one of the reagents (typically the alcohol) is used along with a drying agent. Both of these strategies have the effect of changing the equilibrium to the right and increasing the production of ester. Those if the esters produced are extremely unpredictable and can be removed from the system by distillation. Although If the ester is not very easily distilled, it may be possible instead to add a desiccant (used as a drying agent) to the equilibrium system, thereby removing water from the system and forcing the equilibrium to the right; students will produce more ester. Furthermore in this lab students will be reacting different organic acids (Ethanoic acid) with various alcohols (ethanol and propan-1-ol). Students will accomplish two different esters with odors that should be familiar to them. Unlike many organic chemical compounds, each ester has its own unique odor, and with a distinguishing nose, this fact can be used to help recognize them. Many of the odors and flavorings of fruits and flowers are due to the presence of esters in the essential oils of these materials. Esters are only used for the cheapest toilet waters, since on contact with sweat; they hydrolyze, giving organic acids.  These acids, dissimilar to their precursor esters, mostly do not have a pleasurable odor. Besides the reverse of the esterification reaction is referred to as a hydrolysis reaction; it represents the break down of the organic compound through the action of water. Hypothesis:

In the first test ester will be produced from ethanoic acid and ethanol having a strong and nice odor that can be easily smelled. For the second test also a recognizable smell will be the product from ethanoic acid and propan-1-ol. The reason for why the product will be recognizable by the nice odor of ester is that the ester group is not as stable to perspiration as the ingredients of the more expensive essential oils. Materials:

* Ice
* Distilled water
* Ethanoic acid
* Ethanol
* Propan-1-ol
* 6 mol/l sulfuric acid
* 250 ml beakers (2)
* 1 ml of test tubes (2)
* 100 ml beaker
* 1 ml pipettes (2)
* Watch glass
* Hot plate
* Thermometer...
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