Taking ONE of the following hypothetical situations, where inter-group prejudice is likely to occur, briefly describe the possible causes of prejudice and possible negative outcomes of its existence. Critically discuss at least two possible interventions which may lead to its reduction. a) Groups of fans of rival premiership football teams within the same UK city b) Pupils from rival secondary schools within the same UK city.
Prejudice is an attitude that consists of three components: emotional, cognitive and behavioural. Although there are positive and negative attitudes, negative ones are more pronounced. Prejudice leads to stereotypes which are generalisations about certain groups. For example Deaux and Emsweiler (1974; as cited in Hogg & Vaughan, 2008) discovered that women’s successes were more likely to be attributed to luck rather than their abilities. Once stereotypes are held, it is challenging to change them in order to shift public’s opinions. Richards and Hewstone (2012), in their experiment promoting stereotype change, discovered that when a participant was provided with examples that contradicted stereotypes, there was no effect in their thinking, sometimes stereotypes were even strengthened. Later when participants were bombarded with examples there was only a slight effect.
However, although this study shows that it might be counterproductive to shift thinking patterns, it still presents the evidence for attitude change. It might be interesting to conduct a longitudinal study which would promote stereotype change and see if results would differ.
According to Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; as cited in Hogg & Vaughan, 2008) intergroup prejudice occurs due to low self-esteem. This motivates group members to derogate those who do not belong to the group and these actions lead to increased self-esteem and positive view about oneself and the group. In addition The Autistic Hostility Hypothesis proposed by Newcomb...
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