Pre Diabetes

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References
1. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2011. Diabetes Care. 2011;34 Suppl 1:S11-S61. [PubMed] 2. Eisenbarth GS, Polonsky KS, Buse JB. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR.Kronenberg: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 31. 3. Pignone M, Alberts MJ, colwell JA, Cushman M, Inzucchi SE, Mukherjee D, et al. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association, a scientific statement of the American Heart Association, and an expert consensus document of the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation. 2010;121:2694-2701. 4. Buchwald H, Estok R, Fahrbach K, Banel D, Jensen MD, Pories WJ, Bantle JP, Sledge I. Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2009 Mar;122(3):248-256.e5. Review. PubMed PMID: 19272486. [PubMed] 5. ACCORD Study Group, Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Genuth S, Ismail-Beigi F, Buse JB, et al. Long-term effects of intensive glucose lowering on cardiovascular outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:818-828. 6. Alemzadeh R, Ali O. Diabetes Mellitus. In: Kliegman R, ed. 19th ed. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 583. 7.

8. Diabetes and exercise
9. A person with type 2 diabetes can use exercise to help control their blood sugar levels and provide energy their muscles need to function throughout the day. By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person with type 2 diabetes may be able to keep their blood sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medication. 10. Review Date: 6/28/2011.

11. Reviewed by: Ari S. Eckman, MD, Chief, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc. 12.

13. A.D.A.M., Disclaimer
14. Copyright © 2012, A.D.A.M., Inc.
15. PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. 16.
17. Low blood sugar symptoms
18. Symptoms such as weakness, feeling tired, shaking, sweating, headache, hunger, nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. 19. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), a sugar-containing food should be eaten right away. 20. Review Date: 6/28/2011.

21. Reviewed by: Ari S. Eckman, MD, Chief, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc. 22.

23. A.D.A.M., Disclaimer
24. Copyright © 2012, A.D.A.M., Inc.
25. PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

15/15 rule
To treat low blood sugar the 15/15 rule is usually applied. Eat 15 grams of carbohydrate and wait 15 minutes. The following foods will provide about 15 grams of carbohydrate: * 3 glucose tablets

* Half cup (4 ounces) of fruit juice or regular soda
* 6 or 7 hard candies
* 1 tablespoon of sugar
After the carbohydrate is eaten, the person should wait about 15 minutes for the sugar to get into their blood. If the person does not feel better within 15 minutes more carbohydrate can be consumed. Their blood sugar should be checked to make sure it has come within a safe range. Review Date: 6/28/2011.

Reviewed by: Ari S. Eckman, MD, Chief, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Trinitas Regional Medical Center, Elizabeth, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc....
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