PragmatismAnalytic PhilosophyPhilosophy of Mind
Historical DevelopmentBegan with the rejection of the existence of a “fixed, absolute truth”. Then proceeded with the postulate that truth is relative to space and time.1) Kant’s philosophy was a precursor to Analytic philosophy with his proposition that knowledge is possible if we focus on things we can experience.
2) Bertrand Russell, subscribing to idealist metaphysical principles, grew dubious of their assumptions on propositions all having a subject/predicate form. Russell felt this was incompatible with there being more than one thing, and ultimately went on to pioneer analytic philosophy.
Key ContributorsC.S. Pierce, William James, and John Dewey began pragmatism.Ludwig Wittgenstein (logical atomism); Bertrand Russell; Gottlob Frege (logicism and an arguable founder of analytic philosophy); Moritz Schlick (logical positivism)Gilbert Ryle (Behaviorism); J. J. C. Smart (Identity Theory) Principle IssuesPragmatism holds that it is only in the struggle of intelligent organisms with the surrounding environment that theories and data acquire significance. Pragmatism does not hold, however, that just anything that is useful or practical should be regarded as true, or anything that helps us to survive merely in the short-term; pragmatists argue that what should be taken as true is that which most contributes to the most human good over the longest course.1) Mathematical truths can be proved from principles of formal logic.
2) Take issues to their most basic form of our knowledge of the world.
3) Logical Positivism held that philosophy was the activity of “the logical classification of thought”. Fundamentally, if something could not be verified than it was not a factual statementConcerned primarily with the nature of...