Comment on the three types of sociological theories, explain and argue, based
on your library or Internet research, which type of theory is the most
appropriate theory for sociology to adopt.
The three general types of sociological theory are positivistic, interpretive
and critical theory.In determining which theory is the most appropriate for
sociology to adopt,a basic understanding of each theory's strengths and
weaknesses is necessary.In defining each of these theories, it is important to
determine the ontological basis orthe theory's basis for determining what is
knowable; the epistemological basis or the theory's relationship between the
knower and the knowable; and, finally, the methodological basis or the theory's
method for gathering data and obtaining knowledge.
The positivistic theory is based on an ontology ofbeing a realist.The realistic
slant of positivism is also known as determinism.The positivist knows that a
reality is "out there" to be defined and categorized.The hard sciences from the
time of Newton and Decartes have traditionally relied on the positivistic
approach.The positivist hopes to be able to approximate "reality" in a detailed
generalization or theory on how reality operates.The theories of a positivist
generallytake the form of cause and effect laws describing the outside
reality.Robert Merton defined these theorems as "clear verifiable statements of
the relationships between specified variables."
Positivism relies onan objective epistemology.The observer remains distant and
does not interact with the observation or experiment.Values and any other
factors that might lead to bias are to be carefully removed so that the cold,
monological gaze of science can be used to analyze the data.The positivist is an
The methodology of positivism is experimental and manipulative. The approach is
the same... [continues]
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