Power Quality Issues and Improvemrnt

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 51, NO. 3, JUNE 2004

641

A Review of Three-Phase Improved Power Quality
AC–DC Converters
Bhim Singh, Senior Member, IEEE, Brij N. Singh, Member, IEEE, Ambrish Chandra, Senior Member, IEEE, Kamal Al-Haddad, Senior Member, IEEE, Ashish Pandey, Member, IEEE, and Dwarka P. Kothari, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—Three-phase ac–dc converters have been developed to a matured level with improved power quality in terms of power-factor correction, reduced total harmonic distortion at input ac mains, and regulated dc output in buck, boost, buck–boost, multilevel, and multipulse modes with unidirectional and bidirectional power flow. This paper presents an exhaustive review of three-phase improved power quality ac–dc converters (IPQCs) configurations, control strategies, selection of components, comparative factors, recent trends, their suitability, and selection for specific applications. It is aimed at presenting a state of the art on the IPQC technology to researchers, designers, and application engineers dealing with three-phase ac–dc converters. A classified list of around 450 research articles on IPQCs is also appended for a quick reference. Index Terms—Harmonic reduction, improved power quality,

power-factor correction, switch-mode rectifiers, three-phase ac–dc converters.

I. INTRODUCTION

T

HREE-PHASE ac–dc conversion of electric power is
widely employed in adjustable-speeds drive (ASDs),
uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), HVdc systems, and
utility interfaces with nonconventional energy sources such as solar photovoltaic systems (PVs), etc., battery energy storage systems (BESSs), in process technology such as electroplating, welding units, etc., battery charging for electric vehicles, and power supplies for telecommunication systems [1]–[25]. Traditionally, ac–dc converters, which are also known as rectifiers, are developed using diodes and thyristors to provide controlled and uncontrolled unidirectional and bidirectional dc power. They have the problems of poor power quality in terms of injected current harmonics, resultant voltage distortion and poor power factor at input ac mains and slowly varying rippled dc output at load end, low efficiency, and large size of ac and dc filters. In view of their increased applications, a new breed of rectifiers has been developed using new solid-state self-commutating devices such as MOSFETs, insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs),

Manuscript received July 15, 2002; revised June 23, 2003. Abstract published on the Internet January 14, 2004. This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. B. Singh is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016, India.

B. N. Singh is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 USA.
A. Chandra and K. Al-Haddad are with the Département de Génie Électrique, École de Technologie Supérieure, Université du Québec, Montréal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada (e-mail: chandra@ele.etsmtl.ca).
A. Pandey and D. P. Kothari are with the Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016, India.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2004.825341

gate-turn-off thyristors (GTOs), etc. Such converters are generally classified as switch-mode rectifiers (SMRs), power-factor correctors (PFCs), pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) rectifiers,
multilevel rectifiers, multipulse rectifiers, etc. Because of the strict requirement of power quality at the input ac mains, several standards [1]–[3] have been developed and enforced on the
consumers. Because of the severity of power quality problems some other options such as passive filters, active filters (AFs), and hybrid filters [4], [7]–[9] along with conventional rectifiers have been extensively developed, especially in large rating and already existing installations. However, these...
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