Power Factor Correction

Topics: Power factor, Alternating current, Electric power Pages: 2 (567 words) Published: May 22, 2013
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
The majority of energy used in the world is the electrical energy which is generated, distributed and utilized in sinusoidal form. This type of energy production are called alternating current (AC) source. Due to the presence of different types of loads in a circuit, the phase difference or angle (θ) is form between the voltage and the current vector. Figure1 below shows the typical vector diagram of AC voltage and current. This angle (θ) is called the power factor angle and the cosine of this angle is called the power factor. Power factor may be defined also as the ratio of the real power to the apparent power whose value lies between 0 and 1 and it is dimensionless quantity. Figure 2 Shows the Power Triangle Voltage (V)

θ
Current ( I)

Apparent power (S)
Reactive Power (Q)

θ

Real Power (P)

Figure2. Power Triangle
Figure1. A typical vector diagram for ACvoltage and current

It has been observed that the power is very important in the present development of industrial revolution. The inductive loading of today’s industry greatly affect the power factor so the power system losses its efficiency. With the increasingpower demand and energy cost, power factor correction has gained great attention and attempt to attain the most economical solution. 1.2 Statement of the Problem

Deep well water pumping station at Central Mindanao University (CMU) is known of having low power factor due to the presence of inductive loads, mainly the motors that drive the pumps for the suction of the water. Electric motors in water pumping station requires reactive power to magnetize the field windings and real power that produces useful work such as motion and torque. Too much Reactive power in a system causes the increase of Apparent Power (the combination of Real Power and Reactive Power) as well as the decrease of power factor. In the power system, a load with high Power Factor or near to 1 draws lesser current than...
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