The study of population growth is very important in a country from the point of society of a country because human being constitute not only as an instrument of production but also end themselves. Its increase is largely depend on some demographic factor like marriage, birth, death, migration etc. It is important to know the quantitative number of people and the growth of particular time with its effect on society negatively and positively for future guidance. Objectives
1) To study the rate at which population of India has been growing. 2) To co-relate absolute number of population growth and Indian society. 3) To know how population growth create social problem in India. Population Growth In India
India has an area of 32,87,263 sq.km having a population of 1.2 billion in 2011 census. She is the second most populous country and rank 7th in term of size. To know the number and growth of population census is conducted every ten years. The first census of India appeared in 1972 but the census did not cover the whole area. The first complete and synchronous census covering the entire country to provide vital information was conducted in 1881. After this year census has been carrying out till 2011. The 2011 census represents the fifteen census of India as reckoned from 1872.
India witnesses positive growth since the beginning of census except 1921 census. The year 1921 census registered a negative growth of -0.31 percent which happened only once throughout the demographic history of India. The high mortality during this period was due to epidemic of influenza, plague, small pox, etc. In addition to this, World War-I was also responsible for the negative growth of population because it took the lives of thousands of Indian soldiers. This period is also called ‘the demographic divide’ in Indian history.
Trend of growth of Population with Birth Rate and Death Rate (1901-2011) CensusPopulationDecadal GrowthBirth RateDeath rate Natural Increase 190123,83, 96, 327----
191125, 20, 93, 3905.5749436
192125, 13, 21, 213-0.3148471
193127, 89, 77, 23811.00463610
194131, 89, 77, 23814.22453114
195136, 10, 88, 09013.31402713
196143, 92, 34, 77121. 64422319
197154, 81, 59, 65224.80371522
198168, 33, 29, 09724.66341222
199184, 64, 21, 03923.87311120
20011, 02, 87, 37, 43621.5426917
20111, 21, 01, 93, 42217.6421714
Source : Census of India. Numbered in Birth and Death Rate are round off
The pattern of population growth in India can be understood by applying the concept of demographic transition. The period between 1901- 1921 witnessed a period of slow growth rate . The period can be a period of high birth rate and high death rate which is stage 1 in demographic transition. During the period of 1921-1981 the decadal growth rate increase from 11.00 – 24.66 % and natural increase has reached 10.22 – 22 designate the period of stage II, rapid decline in death rate and birth rate. The period between 1981- 2011 have decline in birth rate and death rate where the decadal decrease it from 23.87- 17.64 and natural increase has also slowed down from 22- 17. It is obvious that India is entering the third stage of demographic transition.
POPULATION GROWTH AND SOCIETY
Indian society is made by the aggregation of individual living together in one place. The activity and the growing number of societies through population increase will have an impact on resources¬1. The increase in population will have multiplied the per capita consumption on resources. The result of utilization of exceeding resource generation will have resulted in depletion of resource and created more social evil in society. By now, it has been realised the crisis that can be happened in society pressured by population growth, contraception by modern means is realised and its...