Economic and Social Indicators

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Roll no. 33118
Assignment series 1

Problem
From gapminder.org we are required to compare the following countries for their economic and social indicators and report salient findings. We have to figure out whether India is a superpower or not.

1. India
2. Pakistan
3. Bangladesh
4. Nepal
5. Sri Lanka

Assumptions
1. Year 1947 is taken because three out of the given five became independent around that time with Nepal in 1923 and Bangladesh in 1971. 2. Super-power country doesn’t only have a high GDP and economy size but standard of living of its citizen is also the best.

Analysis

To compare the 5 countries we will consider 9 parameters divided into 2 parts 1. Social parameters
2. Economic parameters

To see the progress of a country over the years we not only should see the economic changes but also the social changes because quality of living of people is equally important.

1. Social parameters
a. Population

Table [ 1 ]
Population| | | |
Country| Year 1947| Year 1991| Year 2011| % Increase | India| 346| 856| 1138| 228.90|
Pakistan| 34.3| 117.6| 176| 413.12|
Sri Lanka| 7| 17.4| 21| 200|
Bangladesh| 42.6| 112| 156| 266.2|
Nepal| 8.7| 19.8| 30| 244.82|

Figure [ 1 ]
Population rose from 1947 to 2011 of all these 5 countries as shown above in table 1 which is depicted in figure 1. Although India is far ahead of everyone else in terms of population but the highest rise in population is shown by Pakistan. High population implies more burden on resources to fulfil the need on the other hand higher the population higher the workforce. b. Life expectancy

A very important aspect of social standards is life expectancy. Here in table 2 we can see that Sri Lanka has the highest life expectancy among the given five. It started with the highest life expectancy and has maintained that through this period. In this parameter we can see that India is the 4th amongst the given 5 countries.

Table [ 2 ]
Life Expectancy| | | |
Country| Year 1947| Year 1991| Year 2011| % Increase | India| 36| 58| 64| 77.77|
Pakistan| 32| 61| 67| 109.37|
Sri Lanka| 50| 70| 74| 48|
Bangladesh| 35| 55| 67| 91.43|
Nepal| 34| 55| 67| 97.05|

Figure [ 2 ]
c. Infant mortality rate
Infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of children during the 1st year of life (per 1000 births). It is a useful indicator of a country's level of health or development. Here in table 3 we can see that India has done quite well but again Sri Lanka has shown the maximum improvement and is far ahead of all the countries in the current scenario. Table [ 3 ]

Infant Mortality Rate| | |
Country| Year 1947| Year 1991| Year 2011| % decrease|
India| 156| 76| 52| 66.66|
Pakistan| 139| 100| 72| 48.20|
Sri Lanka| 105| 23| 13| 87.62|
Bangladesh| 170| 100| 43| 74.70|
Nepal| 221| 96| 41| 81.45|
| | | | |
| | | | |

Figure [ 3 ]
d. Poverty
Poverty is the percentage of people living below 2$ per day. Poverty is a main factor which pulls the per capita of countries down. 2$ a day has been used because it is taken as the minimum level at which a person can fulfil his/her basic necessities. Here starting with the same level as India, Pakistan has improved greatly. From 89% people below poverty line it has reduced it to 60%. Sri Lanka continues to dominate the social parameters in the current scenario.

Table [ 4 ]
poverty| | | |
Country| Year 1947| Year 1991| Year 2007| % decrease|
India| 89| 83| 76| 14.60|
Pakistan| 89| 88| 60| 32.58|
Sri Lanka| 52| 49| 52| 0|
Bangladesh| 93| 97| 81| 12.90|
Nepal| 93| 96| 78| 16.13|

Figure [ 4 ]

e. Age 15+ employment rate
Percentage of total population, age group 15+, which has been employed in 1991. As we can see by the figure 5 and table 5 all the countries are non-performers in...
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